The US Energy Department is funding a dozen projects to capture carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and store or use them beneficially. (based on Oct 2009 news)
Energy Secretary Steven Chu announced $21.6m in funding, from a $1.4 billion pot devoted to the purpose in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act.
Winning projects are:
• Chemicals giant Air Products and Chemicals proposes concentrating CO2 from a pair of methane waste streams. The gas, more than a million tons annually, would be piped to the Oyster Bayou oilfield in Texas for enhanced recovery by Denbury Onshore. I guess this would essentially prevent methane (a more potent GHG) from spilling over into the atmosphere while sequestering the CO2 as well.
• Archer Daniels Midland, the agricultural major, is working with an advanced amine process from Dow/Alstom to capture flue gases for sequestration in the Mt. Simon Sandstone reservoir. Amines are energy intensive as greenhouse gas scrubbers. Advanced amines aim to reduce the energy intensity of CO2 removal from flue gasses by 20-30%. In fact, advanced amines for CO2 capture is one of the hottest research topics right now.
• Battelle Memorial Institute, in partnership with Boise White Paper and Fluor, is exploring carbon sequestration in deep flood basalt formations in Washington State. Flour is at work on a custom CCS technology designed to handle exhaust from burning black liquor, a by-product of the pulp and paper production process used for fuel. It will be interesting to see how the non-power plant sector adopts CCS technologies. To what extent do these technologies need customization when compared to those for power plants? This is something I’d like to read up on.
• Shell Oil affiliate C6 Resources will work with two Energy Department laboratories to capture and pipe 1 million tons of CO2 from sources in the San Francisco Bay Area of California and inject it into a saline formation more than 3.2 kilometres under ground.
• Shell Chemical Capital plans to capture, condition and transport by pipeline by-product and off-gas CO2 streams from multiple Mississippi River facilities in Louisiana. A million tons each year would be stored in geologic formations.
• Cement giant CEMEX USA is partnering with RTI International on a dry sorbent technology aimed at capturing 1 million tons of CO2 a year in a commercial-scale application at a CEMEX plant. Cement is one industry (after power plants) that could be very keen on the CCS technologies, given that they are one of the largest CO2 emitting sectors.
• ConocoPhillips plans to improve conversion efficiency and economies of scale in carbon capture at a petcoke-fired, 683-megawatt power plant adjacent to a refinery in Texas. The goal is to capture 85% of CO2 in the process stream, with more than 5 million tons a year pumped into depleted oil or gas fields.
• Leucadia Energy, partnering with Denbury Onshore, have two winning projects: One aims to capture 4 million tons annually from a planned petroleum coke-to-chemicals project in Louisiana. The CO2 will be used for EOR. The other project would attempt to capture a similar amount of CO2 from a petcoke-to-substitute natural gas plant in Mississippi. These are examples of CCS in the petrochemical industry
• Praxair, in partnership with BP Products North America, Denbury Resources and Gulf Coast Carbon Center, aims to capture emissions from a hydrogen-production facility at a BP refinery, using them for enhanced oil recovery. A million tons of CO2 annually could be captured.
• The University of Utah plans to capture more than 1 million tons of CO2 annually from a variety of industrial sources and transported by two new pipelines to be used for enhanced oil recovery and storage in a deep saline aquifer beneath the state of Kansas.
• Wolverine Power Supply Cooperative will investigate advanced amines from Hitachi and Dow to capture 300,000 tons of CO2 a year from a planned 600MW circulating fluidized bed power plant in Michigan.