Archive for category CCS Europe

CCS Projects in United Kingdom

Posted by on Monday, 21 March, 2011

United Kingdom has several projects in CCS. The projects discussed in this paper are

1. Longannet Post Combustion Power plant

2. Ferrybridge Post Combustion Project

3. Powerfuel Hatfield

4. Killingholme Pre Combustion Project

5. Hunterston

 

Longannet Post Combustion Power Plant:

Longannet is the second largest power plant in UK and third largest coal-fired power station in Europe, generating 2400 MW of electricity. It is located on the upper Firth of Forth, close to the Central North Sea – an area that the best science shows is ideally suited to CO2 storage. The plant will produce 2 million tonnes per annum of carbon dioxide which will be transported by pipeline for storage in geological formations.  Longannet project is one of two projects still competing for funding in the first round of the UK government’s competition to demonstrate CCS in a coal-fired power station by 2014. Pre-feasibility was completed in 2009.  In March 2010 it was selected by the Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) as one of the two final bids in the UK.

The CO2 will be piped to the central North Sea oil/gas fields for safe storage. A detailed 12 month Front End Engineering Design (FEED) study is currently being carried out. Longannet is one of the 2 finalists, along with Kingsnorth, to receive 1 billion pounds for the UK CCS demonstration.

Facts:

Company/Alliance: Scottish Power, Shell, National Grid, Aker Clean Carbon

Location: Firth of Forth, Fife, Scotland, UK

Feedstock: Coal

Size: 330MW

Capture Method: Post Combustion

Capture Technology: Amine

Year of Operation: 2014

 

Ferrybridge Post Combustion Project:

In March 2010, Scottish and Southern Energy (SSE) was awarded funding of £6.3 million towards trialling post-combustion carbon capture technology at its Ferrybridge power station in West Yorkshire. Construction work is under way, with the trial itself expected to commence in 2011 and be complete by the end of 2012. The pilot project will collect around 100 tonnes of CO2 per day from a flue gas slipstream corresponding to about 5MW of electric power, and the technology will use an amine solvent that will be recycled after the CO2 has been extracted.

Facts:

Company/Alliance: Scottish and Southern Energy (SSE), Doosan Babcock, Siemens, and UK Coal

Location: Ferrybridge Station, West Yorkshire, England, UK

Feedstock: Coal

Size: 500 MW- Retrofit with supercritical boiler and turbine, 1.7 million tonnes of CO2 per year captured and stored

Capture Method: Post Combustion

Capture Technology: Amine

Year of Operation: 2011

 

Powerfuel Hatfield:

Powerfuel Power plans to build and operate a state-of-the-art 900MW integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant with CCS. In December 2009, the project was awarded funding of up to €180 million from the European Commission’s European Economic Recovery Plan. The venture has already completed a full FEED study and site preparation work is under way. Construction will take three to four years over two phases – the first phase allowing the plant to operate on natural gas until the second-phase coal gasification island with carbon capture is complete. At this stage, the plant will capture about 5 million tonnes of CO2 per year. The lifespan of the project will require storage of 190 million tonnes.

 

Facts:

Company/Alliance: Powerfuel, Kuzbassrazrezugol (KRU), and Shell UK

Location: Hatfield Colliery, South Yorkshire, England, UK

Feedstock: Coal

Size: 900MW

Capture Method: Pre Combustion

Capture Technology: IGCC

Year of Operation: 2014

 

Killingholme Pre Combustion Project:

Killingholme is a Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) comprising two 450MW modules giving a total generation capacity of 900MW. Following a period of mothballing, Killingholme Power Station was returned to service in 2005.This was the first time in the UK that a plant has been successfully returned to service following mothballing. The company had planned to fit pre-combustion carbon capture within a second phase at the proposed ₤1-billion “clean coal” power plant, with depleted gas fields under the North Sea earmarked as potential storage sites.

Facts:

Company/Alliance: E.ON UK, Powergen

Location: Killingholme, in Lincolnshire, UK

Feedstock: Coal

Size: 450MW

Capture Method: Pre Combustion

Capture Technology: IGCC

Hunterston:

In 2008 Peel Energy and DONG Energy established Ayrshire Power Limited as a joint venture to explore the possibility of building a 1600 MW power station at Hunterston in North Ayrshire. The Power station would burn both coal and biomass to produce up to 1852 MW of electricity. The current plans deal only with onsite carbon capture infrastructure, with the remaining offshore elements of the chain – transportation and storage – to be covered by future applications. The development includes two operating power units of 926MW capacity each, and a demonstration carbon capture unit with associated gas transfer plant. The operator will feed electricity into the UK’s National Grid.

Facts:

Company/Alliance: Ayrshire Power Limited

Location: Hunterston, Ayrshire, Scotland, UK

Feedstock: Coal

Size: 1600MW

Capture Method: Post Combustion

Capture Technology: Ammonia

Year of Operation: 2017

 

Other CCS projects in United Kingdom:

DECARBit project:

The DECARBit project links 21 partners from 10 European countries to fast track the development of pre-combustion carbon capture technologies for fossil fuel power plants – from experimental to full pilot testing stages. In 2010, the project entered its second phase, where pilot testing of selected pre-combustion capture technologies focuses on pre-combustion separation, oxygen separation and hydrogen combustion.

http://www.zeroco2.no/projects/decarbit-project

RWE npower – Blyth post-combustion project:

This is a feasibility study by RWE npower to build a 2400 MW supercritical clean coal power station on the site of the former Blyth Power Station. The new station would save over 3 million tonnes of carbon dioxide per year with facilities to burn carbon neutral fuels such as biomass at a later date. The power station would also be built carbon capture ready (post-combustion).

http://www.zeroco2.no/projects/rwe-npower-2013-blyth-post-combustion-project

Progressive Energy – Teesside pre-combustion project:

This is a project by Progressive Energy to potentially develop a 800 MW clean coal project with pre- combustion carbon capture and storage. Two new companies have been set up; Coastal Energy which will own the power station, and COOTS Ltd, which will own the CO2 pipeline assets.

http://www.zeroco2.no/projects/progressive-energy-2013-teesside-pre-combustion-project

RWE npower – Tilbury post-combustion project:

RWE npower has announced a feasibility study into the construction of a 1000 MW supercritical coal power station at Tilbury, Essex. The plant would incorporate post-combustion carbon capture and storage and could be operational by 2016, saving up to 90% of the plants carbon dioxide emissions per year.

http://www.zeroco2.no/projects/rwe-npower-2013-tilbury-post-combustion-project

RWE npower – Aberthaw post-combustion Project:

This plant is a 3 MW pilot plant, scaling up to 100 MW demonstration plant at Tilbury. RWE’s team included BOC (a Linde Group company), Cansolv Technologies Inc., I.M Skaugen SE, The Shaw Group Inc., and Tullow Oil. I.M.

http://www.zeroco2.no/projects/rwe-npower-2013-aberthaw-post-combustion-project

Renfrew test facility:

The test facility is stationed in Renfrew, 9.7 km west of Glasgow, Scotland. Doosan Babcock claims this to be the world’s largest carbon capture research facility. This facility uses Solvent Scrubbing Technology to capture CO2 from coal-fired flue gases, through a process of absorption and regeneration.

http://www.zeroco2.no/projects/renfrew

Kingsnorth post-combustion project:

In March 2010, E.ON’s proposals for Carbon Capture and Storage received part-funding from the UK’s Department of Energy and Climate Change towards a FEED study. Around the same time, the company submitted plans seeking environmental approval of a CO2 pipeline that would form part of the project. However, in October 2010, E.ON withdrew Kingsnorth from the government’s CCS competition, citing economic hurdles to the construction of the power plant. Its plans remain on hold.

http://www.zeroco2.no/projects/e.on-2013-kingsnorth-post-combustion-project

Department of Energy and Climate Change:

On March 17, 2010 a new office for CCS was started inside Department of Energy & Climate Change. The Office will set the strategic path for the use of CCS, facilitate the delivery of the demonstration programme, create the policy and support arrangements to stimulate private sector investment, and work with stakeholders to remove barriers to investment and development in the UK and globally. It will also look to maximize the domestic and global opportunities for UK businesses and the economy to benefit.

The Office is staffed by a dedicated team of Civil Servants, who are focused on helping to deliver CCS by:

  • Facilitating the development of CCS technology, including the UK demonstration programme,  innovation and funding
  • Working with stakeholders to ensure the wider framework for delivering CCS in the UK exists, including regulation, UK skills and capacity
  • Raising levels of understanding about CCS within governments, industry and public
  • Coordinating strategy and policy on CCS, including the wider potential for application to gas generation and industrial processes
  • Leading on the development of a roadmap, to guide future actions of CCS

 

UK Carbon Capture and Storage Community (UKCCSC):

UKCCSC is a collective of over 250 engineering, technological, natural, environmental, social and economic academic members with CCS interests. There are also roughly 250 industry, governmental and NGO stakeholders who are interested in UKCCSC and contribute to this diverse and vibrant network.

Objectives of UKCCSC:

  • Provide an  open forum for CCS academics to share results from ongoing work.
  • Produce online resources and a regular newsletter to encourage communication and facilitate dissemination of research outcomes.
  • Support earlier career researchers in their development through a targeted programme and participation in other UKCCSC activities.
  • Enable expansion of the academic CCS R&D community in the UK through active engagement of established academics who wish to broaden or redirect their skills to contribute towards R&D on CCS.
  • Improve communication of key research outcomes from the UK CCS R&D community to broad range of stakeholders.

 

UKCCSC is run by a secretariat (based at the University of Edinburgh) with strategic guidance provided by an Advisory Committee and an International Reference User Group. Academic members are comprised of over 250 engineering, technological, natural, environmental, social and economic academic members with CCS interests. Additionally, industry, governmental and NGO stakeholders contribute a further 250 to this growing network.

Current UK CCS Challenges and Opportunities:

  • Finding money to pay for Co2 emission reductions
  • Cost – effective businesses to deliver value
  • Co2 storage – liability issues and the role of government (but many problems avoided by going offshore)
  • Effective injection, storage and monitoring
  • Delivering value from offshore EOR – build on free C02
  • Post Combustion Capture Technology for retrofit
  • Second generation reference plants by 2020

 

The UK Energy Ministry received 9 applications for EU funding to build carbon capture projects in Britain with around 4.5 billion euros at stake. Europe’s biggest carbon emitting power plant Drax and Franc’s Alstom applied for funding to build a 426MW CCS project.Scottish and Southern Energy applied for funding for Carbon Capture and Storage from a 385MW gas fired unit at its Peterhead power plant in Scotland.Peel Energy had applied for CCS funding for a coal and biomass power station at Hunterston.

http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/02/10/us-britain-ccs-drax-alstom-idUSTRE71938H20110210

 

 

Sources:

http://sequestration.mit.edu/

http://www.ccsassociation.org.uk/ccs_projects/uk_projects.html

http://www.globalccsinstitute.com/resources/projects/longannet-clean-coal-power-station

http://www.eon-uk.com/generation/killingholme.aspx

http://www.peelenergy.co.uk/projects/ayrshire-power-station

http://www.decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/what_we_do/uk_supply/energy_mix/ccs/occs/occs.aspx

http://www.geos.ed.ac.uk/ccs/early-career/gibbins.pdf

http://www.ukccsc.co.uk/

http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/02/10/us-britain-ccs-drax-alstom-idUSTRE71938H20110210

 

Related Terms in the Glossary:

Carbon Capture and Storage

Carbon Sequestration

 


Summary of the Report on Co2 Capture and Storage in Scotland by SCCS

Posted by on Saturday, 19 March, 2011

Carbon capture, transport and storage (CCS) is a rapidly growing industry that offers environmental benefits and substantial business, employment and research opportunities for Scotland and the UK. In 2009, the report Opportunities for Co2 Storage around Scotland identified the size of these opportunities and key initiatives that need to be acted upon to move CCS forward in Scotland.  Government, industry and stakeholder organizations joined with Scottish Carbon Capture and Storage (SCCS) researchers in Scottish Carbon Capture and Storage study to progress some of the actions required to inform the deployment of the entire CCS chain in Scotland and the UK.

The study presents new insights on:

  • Path to deployable CCS technologies: This was explored and mapped out by the study members in July 2009. This path presents their view of the timescales and activities required to implement CCS in Scotland which, adopted together with other low-carbon technologies, will contribute to the national target of 80% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 2050.
  • Refining Scotland’s Co2 storage assets and assessing environmental impact: Scotland’s large North Sea saline aquifiers appear to offer substantially greater total capacity for long – term storage. To refine the estimated Co2 storage capacity a more detailed evaluation was undertaken of one of the ten saline aquifier sandstones shortlisted in 2009 report. Three areas of North Sea were examined as potentially suitable for further investigation; the Moray Firth, the Central North Sea and the Forth Approaches Basin.
  • Skills and Capacity Building: Prospective employment in Scotland and the UK, based on International energy projections of CCS projects worldwide, was presented to the Scottish Government and educators in September 2010 to inform future training needs.
  • Public Communication and Engagement for CCS Projects in Scotland: To inform developers of future CCS projects in Scotland key points were drawn from a review of previous practice on public engagement worldwide. The study provides tools for the design of an engagement strategy at the level of individual CCS projects.

The Key Conclusions of the Study are:

  • Scotland’s potential for a North Sea Carbon Storage industry is endorsed.
  • The European significance of Scotland’s Co2 storage resource, estimated in a basin – wide assessment in 2009, is supported by the more detailed evaluation of the Captain Sandstone, which has shown its estimated storage capacity is at least as large as previously calculated.
  • The Captain Sandstone alone could provide a feasible secure store able to hold 15 to 100 years of Co2 output from Scotland’s existing industrial point sources.
  • Offshore Carbon Storage can be implemented in accordance with existing environmental legislation.
  • CCS could create 13,000 jobs in Scotland by 2020, and increase in the following years, with a demand for a wide range of professional and craft skills.
  • The UK plc share of the worldwide CCS business is potentially worth more than £10 billion per year from around 2025, with the added value in the UK worth between £5 billion and £9.5 billion per year.
  • There are the best practice approaches to engaging the public and the study provides the tools to design and implement an effective engagement strategy. Public support will be essential if the environmental and economic benefits of CCS are to be realized.

Next steps along the path to CCS in Scotland:

Concerted and co-ordinated activities by Government, regulators, industry and academia in the two years since publication of the Opportunities for Co2 Storage around Scotland Report have contributed to the establishment and growth of a CCS industry in Scotland and the UK.

  • Further assessment and appraisal of the Captain Sandstone as a Co2 store is justified by the encouraging research results from this study.
  • The integrity of the rocks that seal the Captain Sandstone store must be demonstrated to the full satisfaction of regulators for a site to obtain a Co2 storage permit.
  • To fully realize the European – scale storage potential outlined in the opportunities for Co2 storage around Scotland report, additional North Sea Sandstones should be investigated alongside further detailed evaluation of the Captain Sandstone.
  • Further analysis of skills needs in the CCS industry is required and a review with government and its training agencies of actions is needed to identify additional skills requirements to maximize the economic benefit to Scotland and the UK.
  • The tools provided in this study should be used to design and implement a strategy for early public engagement and communication of CCS with the public and stakeholders in Scotland.

Scotland is committed in reducing 80% greenhouse gas emission by 2050. Scotland, UK and European Union ambitions are for CCS to be available as a low carbon deployment option for power generation and major industrial plants by 2020, via a programme of commercial – scale demonstration projects.

Fossil fuel electricity generation accounts for 41% of Scotland’s Co2 emissions. Scottish Government and Industry joined with SCCS researchers to assess options for CCS in Scotland in 2008. The Opportunities for Co2 storage around Scotland report was published in May 2009. It identified the annual Co2 output from Scotland’s three largest power stations and sites offshore Scotland with the potential for geological storage of Co2. Options for a network to transport Co2 from industrial sources to offshore stores, the economics, business risks, models and funding options were reviewed in this report.

In July 2009, consortium members defined a path to deployable CCS technologies that could be used in clarifying objectives for the deployment of CCS in Scotland. In August 2009 a second consortium of Scottish Government, industry and SCCS researchers established the Scottish Carbon Capture and Storage Development study to progress and map out further steps towards the deployment of CCS in Scotland.

In the report, the potential Co2 storage capacity of Scotland’s North Sea sandstones was assessed on a basin wide-scale and presented as a range of values. Refining Scotland’s Co2 storage assets and assessing environmental impact moves to a site characterization appraisal of one sandstone using data and methods familiar to oil and gas exploration and follows internationally recognized CCS best practice. The assessment of skills and capacity building needed for the future CCS industry and power association. The findings were presented to the Scottish Government and educators in September 2010 to inform future training needs.

Study investigations were selected for the benefit of overall implementation of CCS industry in Scotland and they were all undertaken within the study budget of £290,000 commenced August 2009 and completed by December 2010.

Study members considered some essential requirements for CCS to be available as a low carbon deployment option in Scotland and four of these requirements were selected for detailed consideration:

  • Deliver commercial scale CCS demonstration projects by 2015.
  • Prove the large – scale Co2 storage capacity in North Sea sandstones by 2020.
  • Provide the underpinning research and development by and for UK economic development.
  • Provide both the skills and staff members needed for the future CCS industry.

Work resulting from, or in parallel with this study:

  • The path to deployable CCS technologies was adopted by the Scottish Government and Scottish Enterprise and informed their document Carbon Capture and Storage – a Roadmap for Scotland in March 2010.
  • Scottish Government undertook a CCS regulatory test exercise in August 2010 to ensure an appropriate consenting and regulatory framework for CCS.
  • SCCS researchers were actively involved in CASSEM (Co2 Aquifier Storage Site Evaluation and Monitoring).

Scotland and UK initiatives and opportunities:

  • Post-combustion Co2 capture pilot plant has been tested.
  • Support from the UK government for the implementation of CCS has extended from a single demonstrator to four projects.
  • Out of nine bids in UK, three bids have been made for Scotland.
  • Initial proposals for funding were included in Government’s Electricity Market Reform Consultation Document, which closed for consultation in March 2011.

To read details of Carbon Capture and Storage in Scotland:

http://www.geos.ed.ac.uk/sccs/progress-to-co2-storage-scotland/ProgressingScotlandCO2Opps.pdf

 

Related Terms in the Glossary:

Carbon Capture and Storage

Greenhouse Gas

Carbon Sequestration

Fossil Fuels

 

 

 

 


Carbon prices are up due to nuke disaster in Japan

Posted by on Wednesday, 16 March, 2011

Japan’s devastating tsunami and its subsequent nuclear emergency has sent carbon prices to their highest level in two years, in response to higher natural gas prices and Germany’s decision to close nuclear reactors for testing.

The price of the benchmark EU allowance [EUA] contract hit €17.49 today, up 10.9% from its €15.77 close on Thursday, the day before the earthquake hit Japan.

It closed at €17.32, up 4.3% on the day.

Carbon permits under the EU’s emissions trading scheme, which Switzerland is set to join, rose 5.5 percent to close at €16.60 a tonne on the ICE Futures Europe exchange in London.

The Plans to extend the operating life of the Germany’s nuclear plants would be suspended for at least three months, pending an inquiry into their safety. German government has decided to halt its seven oldest nuclear reactors- increasing demand for replacement power from fossil fuels.

Angela Merkel, German Chancellor, decided to suspend the plants for safety checks following concerns about meltdown of nuclear power in Japan, which could remove about 5 Gigawatts of capacity from the power market.

A German government decision to cancel nuclear extensions would result in an additional demand for 700 million tonnes of carbon through 2020. Nuclear energy accounts for roughly 30 percent of Europe’s energy mix, rising to as high as 80 percent in France.

Nathalie Kosciusko- Morizet, French environmental minister said,

Events in Japan were unlikely to change her country’s reliance on nuclear energy – we can’t switch renewable over night! We need nuclear energy for the future; the dependence on it has risen to as high as 80 percent.

Spanish and Italian ministers made similar pronouncements, while separately, EU energy commissioner “Gunther Oettinger” said events in Japan were likely to force a fundamental rethink of energy policy across the globe.

Meanwhile Switzerland has halted plans to build new reactors and the halted approvals for three nuclear plants are ahead for a safety review.

The US, Senator Joe Lieberman said,

US should “put the brakes on” new nuclear power stations, until the consequences from Japan become clearer.

Japanese carbon emissions are set to rise in the wake of last week’s catastrophe, which caused severe damage to nuclear facilities, and will put the country further away from its emissions reduction target under the Kyoto Protocol.

A Deutsche Bank analyst said,

“We think Japan is more likely to make up any further shortfall in its Kyoto requirements arising out of this disaster with purchases of AAUs.

Based on 9.7GW of nuclear capacity being taken out of Japan’s energy mix for a year, the country’s carbon emissions may raise to 70Mt if that capacity remains offline until the end of next year.

Reference: [Environmental Finance], [Bloomberg ]and [EUobserver]

Click here to see the video- on “Nuclear debate heats up in Germany

[Youtube]

 

Related Terms in the Glossary:

Eu Allowance (EUA)

Carbon Price

Carbon Market

Emission Trading Scheme


Carbon dioxide emission and carbon capture and storage in Poland

Posted by on Tuesday, 8 March, 2011

Poland’s main energy source is coal. Poland emits about 8.3 tonnes of Co2 per capita. Poland currently relies on coal – fired plants for 94 percent of its electricity generation and 55 percent of its energy generation.

Poland’s Belchatow power plant is Europe’s largest polluter. The Ministry of the Environment in Poland welcomes CCS as one of many Clean Coal Technologies and it says this will not be the overall solution on the problem of Co2 emissions.  Bełchatów Power Station, Bielko-Biała Power Plant, Dolna Odra Power Station, Gdańsk Power Station, Jaworzno Power Station, Katowice Power Station, Kawęczyn Heat Plant, Kedzierzyn Zero-Emission Plant, Kielce Power Station, Kozienice Power Station, Ostrołęka Power Station, Połaniec Power Station, Rybnik Power Station, Rzeszów Power Station, Siekierki Power Station, Łagisza Power Station, Łaziska Power Station, Żerań Power Station are some of the coal – fired power stations in Poland.

Poland’s energy plan attempts to reduce its dependence on coal. The government has pledged to be a leader in carbon capture and storage technology. According to the IEA, Poland needs to develop a more focused efficiency targets around a well-defined delivery plan.  In particular, the IEA recommends focusing on improving energy efficiency in two sectors — buildings and transportation.

 

Different carbon capture and storage programmes in Poland:

The Polish government welcomes European investments in CCS research. The Polish centre-right government has adopted a programme for Polish energy politics until 2030. According to the plan, steps will be taken in various directions to diversify energy sources. Energy derived from coal is to drop from 94 percent today to 60 percent in 2030, with the rest made up by a new nuclear plant, renewable energy and gas.

Poland joined in the International Carbon capture and storage group in October 2009 and by this action, it became the 24th member of Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF).  Polish ministry of environment launched a four – year national programme in 2008, “Assessment of formations and structures for Co2 geological storage, including monitoring plans”.

Poland’s Belchatow power plant, Europe’s largest polluter, is planning to curb its emissions with the help of millions of euros of EU investment.

Global power generation group, Alstom, has teamed with PGE Elektrownia Belchatów to provide carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology for the Belchatów power plant in Poland. In the first phase, Alstom will construct a pilot CCS plant which can capture 100,000 tonnes of Co2 per year and this is scheduled to begin by mid 2011. Following this, Alstom and PGE will work on a larger CCS project to capture carbon produced by Elektrownia Belchatów’s 858MW lignite-fired unit which is expected to be operational by 2015.

Poland-based Elektrownia Północ will start the construction of a 2,000Mw coal power plant fitted with carbon capture and storage technology in 2012 with financing from Kulczyk Investments worth 12 billion to 15 billion Polish zlotys.

On 10 February 2009 demosEUROPA – Centre for European Strategy, British Embassy and Vattenfall Poland in cooperation with Embassy of Sweden, organized a conference “CCS and other clean coal technologies – Poland’s prospective trade-mark?”For details of this conference: http://bit.ly/dIWmAA

On 7 October 2009 demosEUROPA – Centre for European Strategy and Royal Norwegian Embassy in Warsaw with a support of Vattenfall organized a conference entitled “Institutional and Financial Framework for Carbon Capture and Storage”. For further details: http://bit.ly/hlYDLz

On November 13, 2009, the Australian Embassy in Poland, in cooperation with demosEUROPA Centre for European Strategy, organized an international conference on carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies and related Australia’s and Poland’s experience. For details of this conference: http://bit.ly/haMhVw

On November 17, 2009 a meeting was organized by demosEUROPA Centre for European Strategy. The main theme of the meeting was “Carbon capture and Storage as a preferred technology for mainstreaming the clean use of coal in Poland”.  For more details: http://bit.ly/haMhVw

On 13 January 2010, a conference was organized by demosEUROPA and British Embassy in Warsaw. The main discussion in this event was about implementation of CCS technology in Poland. View more: http://bit.ly/g2WUdm

On March 24, 2010, demosEUROPA – Centre for European Strategy organized a meeting on low carbon economy in Poland, “Poland’s Low Carbon Transition Strategy – putting Poland on the path of CO2 emission reductions,” For more details: http://bit.ly/e0CKSG

On 18 January 2011, demosEUROPA – Centre for European Strategy organized its seventh High-Level Roundtable on Low-Carbon Economy and this discussion was a part of “Poland’s Low Carbon Transition Strategy. Putting Poland on the path of CO2 emission reductions”. For further details of the discussion: http://bit.ly/fXnvxE

On 22 February 2011 demosEUROPA – Centre for European Strategy organised the eighth session of the High-Level Round Table on Low Carbon Economy, as a part of a greater project “Poland’s Low Carbon Transition Strategy – putting Poland on the path of CO2 emission reductions”. http://bit.ly/idBq4m

On 23 February 2011, demosEUROPA – Centre for European Strategy held a conference “Poland’s Low Carbon Transition Strategy. Energy and climate between Keynes and Hayek?http://bit.ly/hJSM79

Sources:

http://www.cslforum.org/pressroom/publications/pr_poland_101209.pdf

http://www.ccs-politics.se/poland.html

http://www.co2geonet.com/UserFiles/file/Rowena/1d%20-%20Poland’s%20national%20programme%20on%20CO2%20storage_Adam%20Wojcicki%20(PGI).pdf

http://www.theengineer.co.uk/news/polish-carbon-capture/309335.article

http://www.environmentalleader.com/2009/09/01/poland-power-plant-plans-carbon-capture/

http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/global-green/091126/poland-energy-bind

Carbon Capture and Storage, Geological Sequestration

 

 

 

 

 


Co2 Emission & Carbon Capture and Storage in United Kingdom

Posted by on Tuesday, 8 March, 2011

UK emits more than 500million tonnes of Carbon Dioxide every year. One third of electricity in UK is produced from coal. Aberthaw B, Cockenzie, Cottam, Didcot A, Drax, Eggborough, Ferrybridge C, Fiddlers Ferry, Ironbridge, Kingsnorth, Longannet, Lynemouth, Ratcliffe, Rugeley, Tilbury B, West Burton, Wilton, Uskmouth are some of the coal fired power stations in United Kingdom.

CCS projects in United Kingdom:

Peterhead, Longannet, Renfrew, Cockenzie, Hunterston, Tesside, Hatfield, Terrybridge, Killingholme, Onllwyn, Didcot, Kingsnorth, Aberthaw are proposed CCS locations in UK.

Cockenzie and Longannet (Scottish Power):

In 2007, Scottish power announced a feasibility study into converting Cockenzie and Longannet, its two largest power stations, to clean coal technology. The total generating capacity of the two stations is 3390MW and the new technology would reduce about 20% of Co2 emissions at both stations and operation is expected to start in 2012.

Longannet (2nd largest coal – fired power station in UK and 3rd largest coal – fired power station in Europe) is generating 2400MW electricity and Scottish power launched a carbondioxide capture plant at Longannet in September 2008.

Tesside (Centrica and Progressive energy):

Coastal Energy Ltd, a joint venture between Centrica and Progressive Energy, plans to build an 850 MW IGCC plant with pre-combustion capture at Tesside. If built, around 85% of CO2 emissions will be captured and stored under the North Sea.

Ferrybridge (Scottish and Southern Energy):

Scottish and Southern Energy (SSE) is examining to replace the present power station at Ferrybridge, which include a new 800 MW supercritical and ‘carbon capture ready’ plant.

Killingholme and Kingsnorth (E.ON UK):

E.ON announced a feasibility study for a 450MW IGCC plant to be built on a site next to the Killingholme power station. E.ON is also proposing to construct two new 800 MW cleaner coal units at their Kingsnorth power station which is expected to reduce Co2 emission by 20%.

Hatfield (Powerfuel):

In 2003 planning permission was granted for a major re-development of the Hatfield Colliery Site, which included permission to develop a new 900 MW natural gas CCGT and coal IGCC power plant. The plant is expected to begin operation at the end of 2011 and could be available for CCS by 2013.

Hunterston (Peel Energy):

Ayrshire Power Limited (APL) is proposing to build a new multi-fuel power station at Hunterston, North Ayrshire.

Onllwyn (Progressive Energy):

Valleys Energy Ltd (a partnership that includes Progressive Energy) has developed a proposal to construct a new 450 MW IGCC plant with CCS at Onllwyn, near Drym. It would capture about 2.4 million tonnes of Co2 per year.

Aberthaw (RWE npower):

In 2009, RWE npower and Shell have agreed contracts to build a 3MW post-combustion capture pilot plant which will be capable of capturing 50 tonnes of Co2 per day at Aberthaw Power Station in Wales.

Renfrew (Doosan Babcock):

In July 2009 Doosan Babcock opened the world’s largest ‘OxyCoal’ Clean Combustion Test Facility. The project is a collaboration between Doosan Babcock, DECC and Scottish and Southern Energy, as well as Air Products, Drax, DONG, EDF, E.ON, ScottishPower, Vattenfall and UK Coal.

Didcot (RWE nPower):

RWE npower is currently running CO2 capture test facilities at Didcot Power Station. The facilities were commissioned in 2008 and test both post-combustion and oxyfuel capture methods.

Peterhead (Hydrogen Energy and Scottish and Southern Energy):

Peterhead, a joint project between Hydrogen Energy and Scottish and Southern Energy, was planned to be a 475 MW natural gas-fired plant with CCS. The cost of the plant was estimated as $1.9 billion and would have captured 1.8 million tonnes of Co2 per year. Unfortunately the project was cancelled, but elements of it have been taken forward in other schemes.

 

UK Carbon Capture and Storage Community Network (UKCCSC):

UKCCSC has been established to expand CCS research in UK and to provide an open forum for sharing information and ideas in carbon capture and storage during a period 2009-2013. UKCCSC is funded by a £1 million grant from Research Councils UK Energy Programme. Any UK based researcher interested in contributing to research and innovation in CCS can participate in UKCCSC core activities (ie two face-to-face meetings each year for academic researchers to share ongoing work and updating key stakeholders). A regular newsletter will be circulated to UKCCSC members and registered stakeholders (http://www.co2storage.org.uk/News.html).

UKCCSC is run by Robin Cathcart, Network Manager. UKCCSC is run by a secretariat which is based at University of Edinburgh. UKCCSC is led by both PIs for the project, Professors Jon Gibbins (School of Engineering) and Stuart Haszeldine (School of Geosciences). There are two Co-PIs for the project, Hannah Chalmers and Mark Wilkinson. Co-PIs provide guidance for careers programme and UKCCSC newsletter respectively. Nicola McRobbie and Vivian Scott are providing part time support for UKCCSC secretariat.

Advisory committee is providing guidance for the development of UKCCSC which include government, NGO, industry and academic members with strong background and interest in CCS.

Members of Advisory Committee:

Matthew Bilson – Department of Energy and Climate Change, Office of CCS

Jerry Blackford – Plymouth Marine Laboratory (annual rotating academic position)

Jeff Chapman – Carbon Capture and Storage Association

Jeff Hardy – UK Energy Research Centre

Gery Juleff – Foreign Commonwealth Office

Chris Littlecott – Green Alliance

Philip Sharman – Alstom

Jacqui Williams – Research Councils UK Energy Programme

UKCCSC include about 250 academic members (engineering, technological, natural, environmental, social and economic academic members with CCS interests) and also 250 industry, Governmental and NGO Stakeholders. An international reference user group is made up of representatives from organisations based in other countries or with international activities. The group ensures that strong links are maintained between UK researchers and the international CCS community.

 

Carbon Capture and Storage Association (CCSA):

CCSA exists to promote business of Carbon capture and storage and to raise awareness in UK and internationally. Aims of CCSA include inform public, professions and policy makers about the environmental, technical, socio-economic and commercial benefits of CCS, provide advice to policy makers on regulatory issues and potential incentive mechanisms associated with CCS, promote industry priorities on financial, technical, research and policy issues related to CCS etc.

For information about members of Carbon Capture and Storage Association visit http://www.ccsassociation.org.uk/our_members/our_members.html.

 

Near Zero Emissions Coal (NZEC):

The joint UK-China Near Zero Emissions Coal (NZEC) initiative addresses the challenge of increasing energy production from coal in China and the need to tackle growing carbon dioxide emissions. The EU-China NZEC agreement was signed at the EU-China Summit under the UK’s presidency of the EU in September 2005 as part of the EU-China Partnership on Climate Change and the objective of this agreement is to demonstrate near zero emissions coal technology in both China and EU by 2020.

UK and China anticipated a three-phase approach in which phase 1 has explored options for demonstration and build capacity for CCS in China, Phase 2 will carry out further development work on storage and capture options leading to Phase 3, which will construct a demonstration plant by 2015.

Phase 1 of NZEC is funded by UK’s Department of Energy and Climate Change. Objectives of phase 1 are to enable knowledge transfer between Chinese and UK parties, model the future energy requirements of China by taking CCS technologies in to account, produce case studies of potential CCS technologies and build capacity in China for evaluation of Storage potential of Co2 and undertake preliminary screening of potential sites suitable for geological storage of CO2. NZEC has worked particularly closely with the COACH project (COoperation Action within CCS CHina-EU).

NZEC project partners in UK and Europe:

AEA

Alstom Power

British Geological Survey

BP

Cambridge University

Doosan Babcock

Heriot Watt University

Imperial College

Shell

Schlumberger

For more details: http://www.nzec.info/en/project-partners/

http://www.co2storage.org.uk/about.html

http://www.ukqaa.org.uk/PowerStation.html

http://www.ccsassociation.org.uk/

Carbon Capture and Storage, Clean Coal Technology, Climate Change


Italys’ First Carbon Capture Project

Posted by on Thursday, 3 March, 2011

In my previous post, the focus was on EUs’ effort towards reducing greenhouse gas emissions by means of emission trading scheme (ETS). Adding to it, European Union is also helping countries in raising funds to counter climate change and global warming through European Recovery Program for Energy. As a part of its initiative, EU has awarded Enel, Italy’s largest power generation company 100 million Euros for carbon capture and storage (CCS) pilot projects at its coal fired power plant in the city of Brindisi.

As a part of this deal, Enel has started operating its first plant for capturing carbon emissions and storing them underground. This plant aims at capturing 8000 metric tons of CO2 a year at its Brindisi power plant. If found successful, this project would be scaled up to capture 1 million metric tons of CO2 at Enels’ Porto Tolle coal plant in north eastern Italy. This pilot project is the first of its kind in Italy.

The company is planning to convert the Porto Tolle power plant that currently runs on fuel oil to a coal fired plant having a capacity of 2000 MW with an investment of 2.5 billion Euros. Enel is also aiming at an expenditure of 1 billion Euros to set up a carbon capture facility at this plant over a period of 10 years.

Carbon Capture and Storage, Emission Trading, Greenhouse gas


EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS)

Posted by on Tuesday, 1 March, 2011

The EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) is a cornerstone of the European Union’s policy to counter climate change. It is an important tool for reducing greenhouse gas emissions cost-effectively. It is the first and biggest international scheme for the trading of greenhouse gas emission allowances, the EU ETS covers some 11,000 power stations and industrial plants in 30 countries.

EU ETS was launched in 2005 and works on the “cap and trade” principle. That means there is a “cap”, or limit, on the total amount of certain greenhouse gases that can be emitted by the factories, power plants and other installations in the system. Within this cap, companies receive emission allowances which they can sell to or buy from one another as needed.

At the end of each year each company must surrender enough allowances to cover all its emissions, lest heavy fines are imposed. If a company reduces its emissions, it can keep the spare allowances to cover its future needs or else sell them to another company that is short of allowances. The flexibility that this emissions trading system brings ensures that CO2 and other emissions are cut where it costs least to do so.

The number of allowances is reduced over time so that total emissions fall. In 2020 emissions will be 21% lower than in 2005. The ETS is growing reasonably fast and is becoming stronger. The ETS now operates in 30 countries. It covers the 27 EU member states plus Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway. It covers CO2 emissions from installations such as power stations, combustion plants, oil refineries and iron and steel works, as well as factories making cement, glass, lime, bricks, ceramics, pulp, paper and board.

Nitrous oxide emissions from certain industrial processes are also covered. Between them, the installations currently in the scheme account for almost half of the EU’s CO2 emissions and 40% of its total greenhouse gas emissions.

Airlines are expected to join the scheme in 2012. The European Union ETS will be further expanded to include the following industries: petrochemicals, ammonia and aluminium, in 2013, when the third trading period will start. At the same time a series of important changes to the way the EU emissions trading system works will take effect in order to strengthen the system.

The EU ETS has put a price on carbon emissions. The EU ETS has shown that it is possible to trade in greenhouse gas emissions. Emissions from installations in the scheme are falling as intended. The changes to be introduced in 2013, notably a progressive move towards auctioning of allowances, will further enhance its efficacy. The success of the EU ETS has inspired several countries and regions, across the globe.  Some of them are planning to launch cap and trade schemes of their own. They all may operate in different names. Allowances may be called certificates.  The EU hopes to link up the ETS with compatible systems around the world to form the backbone of climate change prevention induced by ETS. Ultimately the allowances should be tradeable globally.

Countering and mitigating or slowing climate change is a top priority for the EU. Actually it should be the top priority for the world to prevent climate change.  Europe is working hard to cut its greenhouse gas emissions substantially while encouraging other nations and regions to follow suit. At the same time, the EU is developing a strategy for adapting to the impacts of climate change that can no longer be prevented. Controlling and countering climate change carries a cost, but doing nothing will be far more expensive in the long run. Moreover, investing in the green technologies that cut emissions will also create jobs and boost the economy.
To prevent the most severe impacts of climate change, the scientific evidence shows that the world needs to limit global warming to no more than 2ºC above the pre-industrial temperature. That is just 1.2°C above today’s level. To stay within this ceiling, we have to stop the rising trend in worldwide greenhouse gas emissions before 2020, at least reduce the global emissions by 50 % by the middle of this century.

The EU is showing the way forward through its strategy to fight climate change and the policies that it already implements or has proposed to the member states and the European Parliament. Initiatives it has taken to cut its climate emissions include:

  • Continually improving the energy efficiency of a wide array of equipment and household appliances
  • Mandating increased use of renewable energy sources, such as wind, solar, hydro and biomass, and of renewable transport fuels, such as bio fuels;
  • Supporting the development of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies to trap and store CO2 emitted by power stations and other large installations;
  • Developing a comprehensive EU adaptation strategy that strengthens Europe’s resilience to climate change.

The EU has even offered to increase its emissions reduction to 30% by 2020, on condition that other major emitting countries in the developed and developing worlds commit to do their fair share under a future global climate change agreement. This agreement should take effect at the start of 2013 when the Kyoto Protocol‘s first commitment period would have expired in 2012.

Reference:

http://www.pewclimate.org/docUploads/EU-ETS-In-Perspective-Report.pdf

http://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/brief/eu/index_en.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Union_Emission_Trading_Scheme

http://www.decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/what_we_do/change_energy/tackling_clima/emissions/eu_ets/eu_ets.aspx

 

EU Emission Trading Scheme, Cap and Trade, Greenhouse gas


Total’s carbon capture project in France

Posted by on Wednesday, 30 June, 2010

In January, in the midst of the Jurançon vineyards in southwest France, in the Lacq gas facility, the oil conglomerate Total started a CO2 storage experiment. Total plans to inject 120000 tonnes of CO2 into a depleted natural gas reservoir which is 4500 meters below the ground in a porous formation of sedimentary rock which extends over 2 sq. km.

Total has invested $72m in the 30MW fossil-fuel pilot carbon-capture system at Lacq, which is one-tenth of the size of the projected industrial plant. It captures 15% of the CO2 emissions from the boilers at the Lacq gas works. If similar technology were fitted to the whole facility and adequate storage capacity were available, all the CO2 could be neutralised.

Total has refurbished one of five boilers at its methane processing plant (due to close in 2013) and converted it into a CO2-capture demonstrator. It is the first plant in Europe and the second worldwide – in October last year Alstom commissioned a similar system in West Virginia – to experiment a complete process for capturing, transporting and storing CO2, the main GHG.

But, as the company acknowledges, capture comes at a cost, in energy and emissions. Trapping 100 tonnes of CO2 produces 20 tonnes of emissions – however, the overall result is positive. The capture process alone represents two-thirds of the overall cost, from start to finish, as much as $170 a ton of sequestered gas. Total is therefore concentrating on how to reduce these costs.

The tricky part is trapping the gas underground. Total has so far injected less than 2,000 tonnes into the cavity. Project manager Nicolas Aimard says “The Rousse reservoir is ideal for storage”.
After five months’ experimentation the engineers say they are “satisfied the technology is sufficiently robust”. Total plans to study this for five years, and then carry on monitoring to check that the gas is permanently trapped and there is no risk of it escaping to the surface. The France-Nord scheme, coordinated by Total, will be testing the storage potential of deep underground reserves of brackish water unsuitable for human consumption.

France’s Environment and Energy Management Agency (Ademe) has selected three further projects to research carbon capture and storage. Ademe has allocated $54m to the four projects, only a small proportion of the total cost. The aim is to investigate different technologies. France is not the only country to be counting on CCS technology. Some 150 projects are already under way worldwide. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change says CCS could neutralize one-fifth of anthropogenic CO2 emissions by 2050, and the International Energy Agency hopes to see 3,400 CCS plants by then, stopping about one-third of current emissions.

This story first appeared in Le Monde.