Archive for category Materials

CO2 Capture Using Biomimetic Route, Enzymatic Catalysts

Posted by on Monday, 1 March, 2010

CO2 Capture from Coal-Fired Utility Generation Plant Exhausts, and
Sequestration by a Biomimetic Route Based on Enzymatic Catalysis –
Current Status

Full paper available here


CO2-Capturing Crystals That Mimic DNA Developed by UCLA Scientists

Posted by on Monday, 1 March, 2010

UCLA scientists have created DNA-like crystals that capture carbon dioxide

UCLA graduate student Hexian Deng and biochemistry professor Omar M. Yaghi have developed synthetic crystals that can be used to trap carbon dioxide.

UCLA’s “designer crystal” approach opens the door for more low cost, scalable applications, such as trapping carbon dioxide from factories or vehicle exhaust pipes.

The new synthetic crystals can code information just as DNA does, in a more simple form based on the sequence of pores in the material. The result is a sponge-like ability to trap gasses, along with a high degree of selectivity that in turn leads to highly efficient carbon capture. According to a UCLA press release, Deng was able to achieve a 400% improvement in carbon dioxide capture by manipulating the sequence.

The UCLA breakthrough is also reminiscent of another innovation related to crystalline structure, a form of glass that can swell in a sponge-like manner and selectively trap volatile organic compounds. Swelling glass, marketed under the trademark Obsorb, was developed by Wooster College professor Paul Edmiston as a relatively quick and low cost way to clean up industrial sites.

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Novel Porous Hybrid Solids for Carbon Capture – PhD Studentships

Posted by on Monday, 1 March, 2010

Two PhD studentships (2009-) are available in Chemistry at St Andrews University on the EPSRC-funded project (EP/G062129). Their aim is to design and optimise sorbents for carbon capture technologies based on microporous framework solids. This will build on work in the research group at St Andrews University that has prepared materials with improved thermal stability and adsorption site types and monitored their properties as sorbents. The work will be closely integrated with a consortium that aims to optimise carbon capture technologies, so that the materials will be tested in other laboratories, including Chemical Engineering at Edinburgh and University College London.

Novel MOF structure types will be prepared by the design and synthesis of ligands and the hydrothermal and solvothermal reaction of these ligands with metal cations under pH and oxidation state control. Novel zeolitic and mesoporous structures will be prepared by designed templating approaches. The structures will be solved via X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy and further characterised by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy. The adsorption behaviour will be measured by automated gravimetric and volumetric equipment available in the department and using advanced spectoscopic and diffraction measurements at central facilities and international laboratories.

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Morphic Patent on CO2 Capture Using Carbonic Anhydrase

Posted by on Monday, 1 March, 2010

Morphic has been granted a patent on a method and system for absorbing atmospheric carbon dioxide using wind turbines, and then combining the CO2 with water and excess electricity to produce liquid biofuels. The technology for CO2 absorption has been verified in a laboratory environment, and the company is now looking for partnerships with a view to evaluating a potential commercialization of the concept.

Since 2004 Morphic has been conducting intensive research and development into energy conversion, covering processes as well as technical systems, with the aim of finding ways to convert and store renewable energy in various forms, and to adapt it for later use in fuel cells for a range of different applications.

The basic idea behind the patent is to absorb carbon dioxide using an enzyme, carbonic anhydrase, which is used to coat the blades of the wind turbine. The function is the same biochemical process that removes carbon dioxide from the blood in a human. An application for a patent on an “energy converter” for producing methanol from electricity, carbon dioxide and water was submitted as far back as 2004. The invention that has now been patented is a more advanced version of the same energy converter, where Morphic believes it has solved the problem of how to extract the CO2 from the air.

For further information, contact:

For more information, please contact:
Johannes Falk, Vice President, Corporate Strategy & IR
Morphic Technologies AB (publ)
Phone: +46 (0)706-76 73 93
E-mail: johannes.falk@morphic.com
www.morphic.com


Using ZIFs to for CO2 capture – UCLA Scientists Breakthrough

Posted by on Monday, 1 March, 2010

This post is a couple of years old, but useful all the same.

UCLA chemists report a major advance in the journal Science.

Their findings could lead to power plants efficiently capturing carbon dioxide without using toxic materials.

“The technical challenge of selectively removing carbon dioxide has been overcome,” said Omar M. Yaghi, UCLA’s Christopher S. Foote Professor of Chemistry and co-author of the Science paper. “Now we have structures that can be tailored precisely to capture carbon dioxide and store it like a reservoir, as we have demonstrated. No carbon dioxide escapes. Nothing escapes — unless you want it to do so. We believe this to be a turning point in capturing carbon dioxide before it reaches the atmosphere.”

The carbon dioxide is captured using a new class of materials designed by Yaghi and his group called zeolitic imidazolate frameworks, or ZIFs. These are porous and chemically robust structures, with large surface areas, that can be heated to high temperatures without decomposition and boiled in water or organic solvents for a week and still remain stable.

“The selectivity of ZIFs to carbon dioxide is unparalleled by any other material,” according a team member. The inside of a ZIF can store gas molecules. Flaps that behave like the chemical equivalent of a revolving door allow certain molecules — in this case, carbon dioxide — to pass through and enter the reservoir while blocking larger molecules or molecules of different shapes.

Currently, the process of capturing carbon dioxide emissions from power plants involves the use of toxic materials and requires 20 to 30 percent of the plant’s energy output. By contrast, ZIFs can pluck carbon dioxide from other gases that are emitted and can store five times more carbon dioxide than the porous carbon materials that represent the current state-of-art.

Source


Atmospheric Carbon CapturE SystemS (ACCESS) Captures CO2 from Air

Posted by on Friday, 12 February, 2010

The Atmospheric Carbon CapturE SystemS (ACCESS) Air-Capture System, developed by Global Research Technologies in Tucson, Ariz., holds sheets of material capable of capturing CO2 molecules directly from open air. (The chemical makeup of the fabriclike sorbent is being kept under wraps.) While that may sound tricky enough, the hard part is in prying the carbon dioxide loose once you absorb it.

To remove the molecules, the sheets are sprayed with a chemical solution that bonds to the carbon dioxide. The solution is then drained off to a separation unit, where the CO2 is isolated as pure gas through electrodialysis. A design goal was to avoid using toxic or corrosive chemicals that would require special handling, so ordinary PVC pipe is used to transfer the solution back to a collection unit so that it can be recycled.

Source


New Copper Molecule Sucks Carbon Dioxide from Air

Posted by on Thursday, 11 February, 2010

A team at Leiden University have shown that a complex molecule containing atoms of copper can remove carbon dioxide, create useful chemical by-products, and return to its original state to repeat the process.

The technique appears to be an attractive way to capture carbon dioxide, but is still impractical for attempts at climate engineering, according to the researchers who have described their experiments in a paper published in the US journal Science.

Their studies have also shown that when raw materials are added to the complex, the carbon dioxide is used up to create industrially useful compounds such as oxalic acid.

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Sargas, Norway Claims New Carbon Capture Technology

Posted by on Wednesday, 10 February, 2010

Tests of a new technology for capturing greenhouse gases from coal-fired power plants have achieved 95% cuts in a step towards new ways to fight climate change, a Norwegian company has said.

Sargas Technology Group claimed a breakthrough following recent tests of a prototype at the Vartan power plant in Stockholm. Tests by Sargas’ five-metre high system of pressurised filters, absorbers and condensers at Vartan — processing 60 kilograms of exhaust gases an hour — are capturing 95% of carbon dioxide, the company claims.
The system relies on existing technology adapted from the chemicals industry. The company said that the capture process costs just under US$20 a tonne of carbon dioxide.

A limitation of Sargas’ technology is that the system works under pressure and only a handful of coal-fired power plants in Sweden, Japan and Germany so far use the so-called Pressurised Fluidised Bed Combustion technology.

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Selective CO2 Capturing Materials – ZIFs – to Result in Carbon Negative Power Production

Posted by on Wednesday, 10 February, 2010

Chemists from the University of California – Los Angeles (UCLA) have made a major advancement in the development of CO2 capturing materials, which they report in the Feb. 15 issue of the journal Science. The scientists have demonstrated that they can successfully isolate and capture carbon dioxide with a class of new materials known as zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs). Their findings could lead to power plants efficiently capturing the greenhouse gas without using toxic materials, after which it can be stored in geological formations. The new materials make carbon capture less energy demanding, and can store up to five times as much CO2 than porous carbon materials being designed for the same task.

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