Archive for category Natural Gas

Cryogenic CO2 Capture Using Cold Energy from LNG

Posted by on Monday, 1 March, 2010

Cryogenic CO2 capture using cold energy from LNG : innovative synergies between LNG terminals and nearby industries.

Within the R&D activities on CO2 capture, transport and storage, GDF SUEZ Innovation & Research Department is conducting a series of studies on the three main options for capture (i.e. oxyfuel/chemical looping, pre-combustion and post-combustion), the two options for CO2 transport (i.e. pipelines and ships) and CO2 storage in partnership with universities, R&D centers, industries and the French National Research Agency (ANR).

Innovative options for capture :
As part of GDF SUEZ Innovation & Research Department, CRIGEN was also involved in an innovative CO2 capture technology using cold, through the ANR Project CO2Sublim built around a partnership with ARMINES1 , which has developed a process for CO2 capture by frosting (“antisublimation” in French). A laboratory mock-up has already been built by ARMINES in order to validate the concept feasibility. The project was proceeded between November 2006 and end of February 2008.

As a next step, CRIGEN and its partners are developing an improvement of this CO2 cryogenic capture system – allowing energy consumption decrease – using free cold from LNG available on LNG terminals.

This technology uses the cold energy released during LNG re-gasification process to freeze out and then liquefy the CO2 from industrial flue gases (power plant, steel or cement industry …). The high-pressure liquid CO2 could be easily transported by ships for Enhanced Gas or Oil Recovery application or for geological storage.
By using potential synergies between a CO2 source and a LNG terminal, this technology will significantly reduce the cost of carbon dioxide capture. Thus, this technology process could be a good alternative to CO2 solvent technologies and presents many advantages such as :
-> Atmospheric capture of diluted flue gases (like solvents processes),
-> High purity of captured CO2,
-> Integrated removal system of common pollutants in the flue gases,
-> Liquefied and pressurized CO2 ready for shipping or pipeline transportation,
-> Less energy consumption than amines technologies,
-> Thermal and physical process instead of chemical process (solvents),
-> Reduced impact of CO2 capture on global efficiency.


CarbonSaver Technology from Atlantic Hydrogen Tests Carbon Removal

Posted by on Monday, 1 March, 2010

CarbonSaver technology involves subjecting natural gas to an electrical charge, causing the carbon and the hydrogen molecules to split. The hydrogen is then mixed back with natural gas to produce HENG with around 20% hydrogen, reducing CO2 emissions when it is burned, while the carbon is removed as a solid.

The CarbonSaver Demonstration Project, which will be located in Fredericton, New Brunswick, is expected to take three years to complete, starting in the summer of 2008. It will involve building a plant capable of generating HENG at volumes greater than 1,000 cubic metres per hour and at pressures between 50 and 150 psi.


Zero Emissions Natural Gas Plant Using Solid Oxide Fuel Cells?

Posted by on Monday, 1 March, 2010

A new way to use natural gas could cut its carbon dioxide output to zero, making it competitive with solar or wind farms.

MIT Postdoctoral associate Thomas Adams and Chemical Engineering Professor Paul I. Barton have proposed a system which produces power from natural gas without burning it, and produces a stream of clean water, and almost pure carbon dioxide, making it easy to harness for sale to cement manufacturers now developing a use for it, or pre-separating it cheaply for Carbon Capture and Storage.
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It doesn’t take new technology, but just a new way to combine solid-oxide fuel cells, and has been demonstrated to work on a lab-sized 250 KW demonstration plant – about at 1/1000th scale of a typical 250 MW plant. Because fuel cells are inherently modular, once the system has been proved at small size it can easily be scaled up, and the inventors say the system could be ready for commercialization in a few years.

Natural gas currently accounts for 22 percent of all U.S. electricity production, and that is increasing as coal use decreases. Plants that used to burn coal are increasingly being converted to burn natural gas instead, so this innovation would likely be competing more with natural gas plants than with coal plants.


Fuel Cell

GE Gorgon – To Pump 3.3 Million Tons Of CO2 Into Ground

Posted by on Monday, 1 March, 2010

To help lower the global warming impact of one of the world’s largest natural gas fields, General Electric has supplied Chevron, Exxon Mobile and Shell with enough compression “trains”–the pumps and turbines that do the sequestering–to create the world’s largest carbon sequestration project. The trains will pump 3.3 million tons of CO2 released from natural gas mining back into the ground every year. That’s the equivalent of taking 630,000 cars off the road.

The project, called Gorgon, won’t go online for a couple of years, and GE won’t begin building the equipment trains for at least another year or two. Once built, the trains will redirect the CO2 back into an underground chamber 1.5 miles under the ocean.


DOE CO2 Sequestration R&D Program – Breakthrough Ideas for Capturing, Storing CO2 Explored

Posted by on Friday, 12 February, 2010

DOE’s Carbon Sequestration R&D Program expands with addition of three university-sponsored projects

The three projects were selected in a broad competition run by the Energy Department’s National Energy Technology Laboratory. They were submitted by:

* University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX. Researchers in the University’s Department of Chemical Engineering will develop an alternative solvent that captures more carbon dioxide while using 25 to 50 percent less energy than conventional, state-of-the-art MEA (monoethanol amine) scrubbing, another CO2-removal method. Using less energy allows coal plants to produce more electricity while capturing and storing CO2. The university will develop and validate a process model to optimize solvent rate, stripper pressure and other parameters. Because gas/liquid contact and CO2 mass transfer would be enhanced, capital costs may be reduced.

* University of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA, which proposes to study in a laboratory a deep-ocean CO2-sequestration method that blends liquid CO2, water and finely ground limestone into an emulsion that could be pumped into the ocean for long-term storage. Because this emulsion would weigh more than seawater, it would sink to the deep ocean. This would make it possible to CO2 at shallower depths than current directed-injection techniques. Soluble calcium bicarbonate, food for aquatic organisms, would be formed and stored in the ocean indefinitely.

* University of Kentucky Research Foundation, Lexington, KY. The University proposes to displace natural gas from black Devonian shales and use these organic-rich rocks to store CO2. Studies have shown that CO2 is preferentially adsorbed by gaseous coals in deep, unminable coal seams in very much the same manner that gas is naturally stored in these coals. In fact, CO2 displaces methane molecules two to one. The study will determine whether a similar phenomena takes place in Devonian black shales, which serve as both a source and a trap for natural gas.


Landfill Methane Reclamation Product from Air Liquide

Posted by on Wednesday, 10 February, 2010

Industrial giant Air Liquide of France has launched a new product to capture and reclaim methane from landfills. Named BIOGAZ, and originally developed in the U.S., the system converts methane gas into pipeline quality energy, the company says.

Organic waste buried in landfills degrades into biogases, which comprise methane, the major constituent of natural gas. When released in the atmosphere, methane contributes to the greenhouse effect. In the summer of 2006, a BIOGAZ system was installed at a new landfill methane recovery project near Johnstown, Pennsylvania.

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Natural Gas + Fuel Cell (SOFC) – Cheapest Route to Cleaner Electricity?

Posted by on Tuesday, 26 January, 2010

Two researchers at MIT say they have what will be “the lowest price option” for power generation in the future if a carbon tax of about $10 per T of emitted CO2. (Source)

The duo – Thomas Adams and Paul Barton – have proposed a novel electricity generation process that combines natural gas and solid oxide fuel cells.

While the researchers claim that their idea could work also with pulverized coal, they feel using it for natuarl gas will produce the best results.

Their process contains a steam reformer that prepares the gas for use within the fuel cells. The reformer and water-gas shift reactor creates a fuel mix absent CO, thus avoiding the problems created by carbon deposition issues in SOFCs when CO is present. The CO2 that is generated will be “mostly pure”, according to the researchers and they also claim that it can be captured with very little energy penalty.

Simulation of their system has indicated that the lifecycle cost of this novel system is lower than that of a combined-cycle natural gas plant, even without carbon pricing. They say that even with a carbon tax around $5 to $10 per ton, their system would be cheaper than coal plants.

Now, the cost part of it we can safely ignore whatever the researchers say because real life is very different from lab simulations. But if the technology works smoothly, it could be great. As you will know, natural gas based power production emits much less CO2 per MWh when compared to coal and if the CO2 capture becomes cheaper and easier using an SOFC fuel cell with natural gas, so much the better!

Well, the one question is “what happens to the 50,000 power plants already existing?” Guess it is far fetched to assume that they will be delighted to shift fuel cell based power production from the current steam – turbine cycle they predominantly use. And imagine the capital costs for such migration.

The idea, if it works smooth and is techno-and-economically better off than other CCS ideas, could well get those developing new power plants mighty interested.

Fuel Cell