Archive for March, 2011

Summary of the Report on Co2 Capture and Storage in Scotland by SCCS

Posted by on Saturday, 19 March, 2011

Carbon capture, transport and storage (CCS) is a rapidly growing industry that offers environmental benefits and substantial business, employment and research opportunities for Scotland and the UK. In 2009, the report Opportunities for Co2 Storage around Scotland identified the size of these opportunities and key initiatives that need to be acted upon to move CCS forward in Scotland.  Government, industry and stakeholder organizations joined with Scottish Carbon Capture and Storage (SCCS) researchers in Scottish Carbon Capture and Storage study to progress some of the actions required to inform the deployment of the entire CCS chain in Scotland and the UK.

The study presents new insights on:

  • Path to deployable CCS technologies: This was explored and mapped out by the study members in July 2009. This path presents their view of the timescales and activities required to implement CCS in Scotland which, adopted together with other low-carbon technologies, will contribute to the national target of 80% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 2050.
  • Refining Scotland’s Co2 storage assets and assessing environmental impact: Scotland’s large North Sea saline aquifiers appear to offer substantially greater total capacity for long – term storage. To refine the estimated Co2 storage capacity a more detailed evaluation was undertaken of one of the ten saline aquifier sandstones shortlisted in 2009 report. Three areas of North Sea were examined as potentially suitable for further investigation; the Moray Firth, the Central North Sea and the Forth Approaches Basin.
  • Skills and Capacity Building: Prospective employment in Scotland and the UK, based on International energy projections of CCS projects worldwide, was presented to the Scottish Government and educators in September 2010 to inform future training needs.
  • Public Communication and Engagement for CCS Projects in Scotland: To inform developers of future CCS projects in Scotland key points were drawn from a review of previous practice on public engagement worldwide. The study provides tools for the design of an engagement strategy at the level of individual CCS projects.

The Key Conclusions of the Study are:

  • Scotland’s potential for a North Sea Carbon Storage industry is endorsed.
  • The European significance of Scotland’s Co2 storage resource, estimated in a basin – wide assessment in 2009, is supported by the more detailed evaluation of the Captain Sandstone, which has shown its estimated storage capacity is at least as large as previously calculated.
  • The Captain Sandstone alone could provide a feasible secure store able to hold 15 to 100 years of Co2 output from Scotland’s existing industrial point sources.
  • Offshore Carbon Storage can be implemented in accordance with existing environmental legislation.
  • CCS could create 13,000 jobs in Scotland by 2020, and increase in the following years, with a demand for a wide range of professional and craft skills.
  • The UK plc share of the worldwide CCS business is potentially worth more than £10 billion per year from around 2025, with the added value in the UK worth between £5 billion and £9.5 billion per year.
  • There are the best practice approaches to engaging the public and the study provides the tools to design and implement an effective engagement strategy. Public support will be essential if the environmental and economic benefits of CCS are to be realized.

Next steps along the path to CCS in Scotland:

Concerted and co-ordinated activities by Government, regulators, industry and academia in the two years since publication of the Opportunities for Co2 Storage around Scotland Report have contributed to the establishment and growth of a CCS industry in Scotland and the UK.

  • Further assessment and appraisal of the Captain Sandstone as a Co2 store is justified by the encouraging research results from this study.
  • The integrity of the rocks that seal the Captain Sandstone store must be demonstrated to the full satisfaction of regulators for a site to obtain a Co2 storage permit.
  • To fully realize the European – scale storage potential outlined in the opportunities for Co2 storage around Scotland report, additional North Sea Sandstones should be investigated alongside further detailed evaluation of the Captain Sandstone.
  • Further analysis of skills needs in the CCS industry is required and a review with government and its training agencies of actions is needed to identify additional skills requirements to maximize the economic benefit to Scotland and the UK.
  • The tools provided in this study should be used to design and implement a strategy for early public engagement and communication of CCS with the public and stakeholders in Scotland.

Scotland is committed in reducing 80% greenhouse gas emission by 2050. Scotland, UK and European Union ambitions are for CCS to be available as a low carbon deployment option for power generation and major industrial plants by 2020, via a programme of commercial – scale demonstration projects.

Fossil fuel electricity generation accounts for 41% of Scotland’s Co2 emissions. Scottish Government and Industry joined with SCCS researchers to assess options for CCS in Scotland in 2008. The Opportunities for Co2 storage around Scotland report was published in May 2009. It identified the annual Co2 output from Scotland’s three largest power stations and sites offshore Scotland with the potential for geological storage of Co2. Options for a network to transport Co2 from industrial sources to offshore stores, the economics, business risks, models and funding options were reviewed in this report.

In July 2009, consortium members defined a path to deployable CCS technologies that could be used in clarifying objectives for the deployment of CCS in Scotland. In August 2009 a second consortium of Scottish Government, industry and SCCS researchers established the Scottish Carbon Capture and Storage Development study to progress and map out further steps towards the deployment of CCS in Scotland.

In the report, the potential Co2 storage capacity of Scotland’s North Sea sandstones was assessed on a basin wide-scale and presented as a range of values. Refining Scotland’s Co2 storage assets and assessing environmental impact moves to a site characterization appraisal of one sandstone using data and methods familiar to oil and gas exploration and follows internationally recognized CCS best practice. The assessment of skills and capacity building needed for the future CCS industry and power association. The findings were presented to the Scottish Government and educators in September 2010 to inform future training needs.

Study investigations were selected for the benefit of overall implementation of CCS industry in Scotland and they were all undertaken within the study budget of £290,000 commenced August 2009 and completed by December 2010.

Study members considered some essential requirements for CCS to be available as a low carbon deployment option in Scotland and four of these requirements were selected for detailed consideration:

  • Deliver commercial scale CCS demonstration projects by 2015.
  • Prove the large – scale Co2 storage capacity in North Sea sandstones by 2020.
  • Provide the underpinning research and development by and for UK economic development.
  • Provide both the skills and staff members needed for the future CCS industry.

Work resulting from, or in parallel with this study:

  • The path to deployable CCS technologies was adopted by the Scottish Government and Scottish Enterprise and informed their document Carbon Capture and Storage – a Roadmap for Scotland in March 2010.
  • Scottish Government undertook a CCS regulatory test exercise in August 2010 to ensure an appropriate consenting and regulatory framework for CCS.
  • SCCS researchers were actively involved in CASSEM (Co2 Aquifier Storage Site Evaluation and Monitoring).

Scotland and UK initiatives and opportunities:

  • Post-combustion Co2 capture pilot plant has been tested.
  • Support from the UK government for the implementation of CCS has extended from a single demonstrator to four projects.
  • Out of nine bids in UK, three bids have been made for Scotland.
  • Initial proposals for funding were included in Government’s Electricity Market Reform Consultation Document, which closed for consultation in March 2011.

To read details of Carbon Capture and Storage in Scotland:

http://www.geos.ed.ac.uk/sccs/progress-to-co2-storage-scotland/ProgressingScotlandCO2Opps.pdf

 

Related Terms in the Glossary:

Carbon Capture and Storage

Greenhouse Gas

Carbon Sequestration

Fossil Fuels

 

 

 

 


Carbon prices are up due to nuke disaster in Japan

Posted by on Wednesday, 16 March, 2011

Japan’s devastating tsunami and its subsequent nuclear emergency has sent carbon prices to their highest level in two years, in response to higher natural gas prices and Germany’s decision to close nuclear reactors for testing.

The price of the benchmark EU allowance [EUA] contract hit €17.49 today, up 10.9% from its €15.77 close on Thursday, the day before the earthquake hit Japan.

It closed at €17.32, up 4.3% on the day.

Carbon permits under the EU’s emissions trading scheme, which Switzerland is set to join, rose 5.5 percent to close at €16.60 a tonne on the ICE Futures Europe exchange in London.

The Plans to extend the operating life of the Germany’s nuclear plants would be suspended for at least three months, pending an inquiry into their safety. German government has decided to halt its seven oldest nuclear reactors- increasing demand for replacement power from fossil fuels.

Angela Merkel, German Chancellor, decided to suspend the plants for safety checks following concerns about meltdown of nuclear power in Japan, which could remove about 5 Gigawatts of capacity from the power market.

A German government decision to cancel nuclear extensions would result in an additional demand for 700 million tonnes of carbon through 2020. Nuclear energy accounts for roughly 30 percent of Europe’s energy mix, rising to as high as 80 percent in France.

Nathalie Kosciusko- Morizet, French environmental minister said,

Events in Japan were unlikely to change her country’s reliance on nuclear energy – we can’t switch renewable over night! We need nuclear energy for the future; the dependence on it has risen to as high as 80 percent.

Spanish and Italian ministers made similar pronouncements, while separately, EU energy commissioner “Gunther Oettinger” said events in Japan were likely to force a fundamental rethink of energy policy across the globe.

Meanwhile Switzerland has halted plans to build new reactors and the halted approvals for three nuclear plants are ahead for a safety review.

The US, Senator Joe Lieberman said,

US should “put the brakes on” new nuclear power stations, until the consequences from Japan become clearer.

Japanese carbon emissions are set to rise in the wake of last week’s catastrophe, which caused severe damage to nuclear facilities, and will put the country further away from its emissions reduction target under the Kyoto Protocol.

A Deutsche Bank analyst said,

“We think Japan is more likely to make up any further shortfall in its Kyoto requirements arising out of this disaster with purchases of AAUs.

Based on 9.7GW of nuclear capacity being taken out of Japan’s energy mix for a year, the country’s carbon emissions may raise to 70Mt if that capacity remains offline until the end of next year.

Reference: [Environmental Finance], [Bloomberg ]and [EUobserver]

Click here to see the video- on “Nuclear debate heats up in Germany

[Youtube]

 

Related Terms in the Glossary:

Eu Allowance (EUA)

Carbon Price

Carbon Market

Emission Trading Scheme


Bachelors and Masters Education in Carbon Capture and Sequestration – CCS

Posted by on Monday, 14 March, 2011

These are some of the CCS research centres with training opportunities:

Carbon Capture and Sequestration Technologies – Massachusetts Institute of Technology:

The Carbon Capture and Sequestration Technologies Program at MIT conducts research into technologies to capture, utilize, and store CO2 from large stationary sources. A major component of the program is the Carbon Sequestration Initiative (an industrial consortium formed to investigate Carbon Capture and Storage Technologies launched in July 2000). MIT research examines carbon sequestration from multiple perspectives, including technical, economic, and political. Current research interests include technology assessments, economic modeling, analysis of regulatory and political aspects, and development of a Carbon Management Geographic Information System (GIS).

For more information: http://sequestration.mit.edu/index.html

Carbon Mitigation Initiative (CMI) – Princeton University:

CMI through its affiliation with Princeton University serves as an interdisciplinary platform connecting innovative educational programs that engage and support undergraduate, graduate and post-doctoral students to become leaders in the fields of Climate Science, Carbon Capture and Storage and Integration and Policy.

Princeton University offers a wide range of opportunities to undergraduate students interested in topics related to carbon mitigation, ranging from courses and certificate programs, summer and year-round internships to student run organizations.

For more details about courses: http://cmi.princeton.edu/programs/education.php

Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program – Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory:

The Earth Sciences Division (ESD) of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been carrying out research on geologic carbon sequestration since 1998. The GCS mission is to develop the knowledge and understanding of CO2 injection, storage, migration processes, impacts, and monitoring to inform and guide the safe and effective implementation of geologic carbon sequestration.

The GCS program can be categorized into six Research Areas like Monitoring, Site Characterization, Risk Assessment, Model Development, Laboratory Studies and Geochemistry/Geophysics Theory & Analysis.

For more details: http://esd.lbl.gov/research/programs/gcs/

Carbon Sequestration Program – University of Nebraska, Lincoln:

Carbon Sequestration Program of University of Nebraska, Lincoln focus on determining the potential for carbon storage in dryland and irrigated cropping systems in the north-central U.S.A and the factors that govern carbon sequestration. Research is being conducted at the western edge of the favorable rainfed “cornbelt” of the north-central USA, which is one of the most productive and largest agroecosystems in the world.

For more: http://csp.unl.edu/Public/index.html

Carbon Capture and Storage – Scottish Carbon Capture and Storage:

The CCS masters provide high-level interdisciplinary skills and training in the entire value chain of carbon capture and storage, including combustion, transport, geoscience and legal aspects.

The Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Masters is designed for science graduates in Engineering or Geoscience related subjects seeking an advanced academic qualification as a launch pad for careers in business, industry and government in the field of low carbon energy production.

For more details: http://www.ed.ac.uk/schools-departments/geosciences/postgraduate/masters-programme/taught-masters/carbon-capture-storage

 

Carbon Capture and Storage – Imperial College London:

Imperial College has the country’s largest CCS research program, with over 30 staff involved in CCS related activity.

The Research Program aims at an integrated approach to Carbon capture, from capture, through transport to geological storage, but with overarching systems approach to ensure a coherent research effort and also involved in legal and regulatory issues.

More from here: http://www3.imperial.ac.uk/carboncaptureandstorage

Centre for Innovation in Carbon Capture and Storage — University of Nottingham:

The Centre for Innovation in Carbon Capture and Storage (CICCS) is an interdisciplinary, innovative, and international leading centre for research at the interface between science and engineering and international cooperation to accelerate the technological innovation needed for the wider deployment of carbon capture and storage (CCS). CICCS is active in a large number of research programmes which include Decentralised options for CCS, Integration of capture and storage systems, Utilisation of CO2 as a feedstock, CO2 capture: improving efficiency and reducing costs, Terrestrial CO2 storage, Public acceptability and regulatory issues and Cleaner coal technology.

For details of these research programmes:

http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/carbonmanagement/research.php

Carbon Capture and Storage – School of Chemical Engineering, UNSW, Australia:

The School of Chemical Engineering and School of Petroleum Engineering at the University of New South Wales has a significant research group headed by Prof. Dianne Wiley investigating the economics of capturing CO2 from industrial sources and injecting it into underground reservoirs in Australia. The project team is seeking PhD or Masters by Research candidates to join our research team. This research is part of the work of the Cooperative Research Centre for Greenhouse Gas Technologies (“CO2CRC”), which is a joint industry / Australian Government sponsored programme that brings together the work of research institutions, Government agencies and private companies in Australia and overseas.

More: http://beasiswa.info/phd-and-research-masters-scholarships-in-carbon-capture-and-storage-at-unsw-australia.html

 

Online Courses for Carbon Capture and Sequestration:

This course is ideal for geologists, researchers, operators, landmen, engineers, and students who want to learn about carbon capture and sequestration. This course covers the fundamental concepts involved in carbon capture and sequestration, and explains the geological conditions required for successful carbon storage. It profiles extraction, transportation, injection, and monitoring of CO2. This course is offered at the beginning of every month. You may sign up for it at any time, and your course will begin the first day of the upcoming month. It is a 4-week online course which consists of 4 one-week units that involve readings, multimedia, guiding questions, and assignments for you to do and to email to your instructor.

More details from here: http://powerplantccs.com/forum/topic/carbon-capture-and-sequestration-online-course

An online course which is ideal for geologists, researchers, operators, landmen, managers, technology entrepreneurs, engineers, and students who want to learn about carbon capture and sequestration. This course covers the fundamental concepts involved in developing geologic models used in successful carbon sequestration. It provides an overview of reservoir characterization, discusses fluid dynamics, and discusses risks and challenges both theoretical and those encountered in current cases. Upon successful completion of this course, the learner will be able to define carbon capture and sequestration, explain how and when it is used, discuss geological characteristics of suitable formations, describe fluid dynamics, and discuss current cases of where and how geological models have been developed in conjunction with CCS.

More from here: http://powerplantccs.com/forum/topic/geologic-models-in-carbon-sequestration-–-online-course

 

Related Terms in the Glossary:

Carbon Capture and Storage

Carbon Sequestration

Geological Sequestration

Clean Coal Technology

 


Carbon capture and storage progress card for usa

Posted by on Monday, 14 March, 2011

According to an estimate from US DOE energy information administration, industrial sector alone account for slightly more than 25% of the total carbon dioxide emissions in the country. In an effort to reduce the carbon emissions from industrial units, DOE has allocated funds from the American Recovery and Reinvestment act to fund more than 25 projects that can capture and store CO2 emissions from different industrial units like cement, paper mills, refineries, chemical plants and manufacturing facilities.

As a part of its $1.4 billion initiative, DOE selected 3 large scale carbon capture and storage projects located in Texas, Illinois and Louisiana for funding way back in 2009. The first phase of these projects involved an initial investment of $44 million towards research and development (R&D). On successful completion of phase I, the 3 projects have entered the phase II that involves design, construction and operation of the carbon capture units. The 3 projects that are part of this initiative are as follows:

  • Air Products and Chemicals had partnered with Denbury Onshore to capture and sequester 1 million tons of CO2 per year from its existing steam-methane reformers in Texas. The captured carbon dioxide will be transported via pipelines by Air Products to near by oil fields to enhance the recovery of the same.
  • Archer Daniels Midland Company is operating an ethanol manufacturing plant in Illinois. The proposed project aims to capture and sequester 1 million tons of CO2 from the plant and store it in a well characterized saline reservoir located about one mile from the plant. It is a joint venture of Archer Daniels, Schlumberger carbon services and the Illinois state geological survey.
  • Leucadia Energy and Denbury Onshore will capture carbon dioxide from a methanol plant to sequester it in an oilfield for enhanced oil recovery operations.

In addition to these 3 projects, DOE as early as September 2010 had identified another 22 projects with an objective of accelerating the R&D in carbon capture and storage to make this technology commercially viable. These projects with a funding of $575 million will complement the already existing projects funded through the recovery act.

An overview of all the above projects can be found here.

 

Related Terms in the Glossary:

Carbon Capture and Storage

Methane

Enhanced Gas Recovery

Carbon Sequestration

 



FutureGen selects Morgan county for its carbon storage project

Posted by on Monday, 14 March, 2011

FutureGen Alliance has selected Morgan County as the preferred site for its carbon storage project. This is part of FutureGen’s $1.2 billion project in developing clean coal technology. The selected site will store carbon dioxide from the retrofitted coal fired power plant-Ameren plant at Meredosia. The captured CO2 will be transported from the power plant to the storage site using pipeline. Atleast 25 surface acres are needed for a carbon injection facility in addition to a 1000 acre buffer zone. The CO2 piped from the Ameren plant will be injected into a sandstone formation at least 3500 feet beneath the earth. Geologists had predicted that this particular storage site has an estimated capacity of 1.3 million tons of carbon dioxide/year.

Morgan, Christian, Douglas and Fayette counties were shortlisted for storing carbon dioxide but finally Morgan was selected based on certain factors. Among the factors that resulted in the selection of Morgan county as the storage site are

  • Geological structure which is suitable for long term storage of CO2
  • Close proximity to the power plant that simplifies pipeline routing to reduce the projects overall cost
  • Strong support from local community leaders and elected representatives in support of the project

Along with the carbon dioxide storage site, the Morgan county will also host a research and training facility and a visitor center. These facilities are critical to advance clean coal technology in the state of Illinois and worldwide.

This project will put Illinois in the world map as a center of clean coal technology and the investment to be made in the county will be a major boost to the economy of the region. This project would generate 1000 jobs in construction and services industry each.

The project cost is put at $1.3 billion with $1 billion federal funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment act. Nearly 55% of the project cost would go towards retrofitting the existing Ameren power plant and remaining cost towards the storage facility. The Ameren power plant will be retrofitted with advanced oxy fuel combustion technology. Oxy-combustion burns coal with a mixture of oxygen and carbon dioxide instead of air to produce a concentrated carbon-dioxide stream for storage. If successfully applied, the technology could help existing coal-fired power plants reduce greenhouse-gas emissions without shifting to natural gas and meet proposed tougher Environmental Protection Agency regulations of traditional pollutants such as mercury.

Having shortlisted the storage site, the next step is the environmental analysis of the site by the environmental protection agency which will take 1.5 years. On getting the approval from the US department of energy (DOE), the construction of pipeline and power plant would start in 2012 to be completed 2015. The storage of CO2 in the proposed site will commence in 2016.

 

Related Terms in the Glossary:

Carbon Sequestration

Clean Coal Technology

Oxy – Fuel Combustion

Greenhouse Gas

 


Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI)

Posted by on Friday, 11 March, 2011

The World’s first Renewable Heat Incentive was launched in UK by the energy secretary Chris Huhne. It is a government scheme with an investment of 860 million pounds aimed at increasing the green capital investment by 4.5 billion pounds by 2020 to create a new market for renewable heat.

What is Renewable Heat Incentive?

RHI is a government designed to encourage people to adopt low-carbon heating systems and thereby reducing the dependence of fossil fuels for heating purpose. It is the first of its kind financial scheme in the world to subsidize low-carbon heating. It provides an incentive to induce number of industrial, commercial and public sector installations adopt renewable energy.

Need for such scheme

Currently around half of the UK’s carbon emissions come from the energy used to produce heat – more than from generating electricity. The RHI will reduce emissions by 44 million tonnes of carbon to 2020, equivalent to the annual carbon emitted by 20 typical new gas power stations. About 95% of heat in the UK is currently produced by burning fossil fuel but with North Sea supplies in decline, leading to an increase in imports, low carbon alternatives are needed.

The new financial incentive will encourage installation of equipment like renewable heat pumps, biomass boilers and solar thermal panels to reduce emissions and support the existing 150,000 jobs in the heating industry. Renewable heat is a largely untapped resource and an important new green industry of the future according to Chris Huhne.

Businesses and public sector organisations are expected to be the biggest beneficiaries of the plan at first, as households will have to wait until October 2012. But up to 25,000 homeowners will be eligible from this July for a special grant to cover the cost of installing green heating. People taking up the subsidies will receive a rate of return on their outlay of about 12%, according to government calculations. For instance, a large ground source heat pump installation costing about £300,000 would receive a subsidy payment of £27,600 a year.

 

Related Terms in the Glossary:

Fossil Fuels

Biomass



Strategic control of energy usage enhances energy efficiency

Posted by on Friday, 11 March, 2011

Webair in collaboration with leading energy management firm EnerNoc will turn its data centres in to “virtual power plants” through demand response, ie by strategically controlling energy usage in its data centres.

Webair is a custom web hosting solution provider for dedicated servers, CDN, VPS, cloud computing etc.

Webair is trying to reduce their carbon footprint and also helps to preserve and restore the environment.  Webair designed a venture called “WE CARE” initiative and as a part of this Webair joined forces with American Forests to help grow a healthier world, one tree at a time.

This project of demand response is the latest energy efficiency project in Webair’s “WE CARE” initiative. Webair employs backup generators to ensure that customers experience no downtime, and routinely tests these generators to further safeguard against outages.

When called upon by EnerNoc, Webair will use its backup generators to provide additional capacity during times of peak energy usage or when there are other stresses on the system. Webair provides a clean, cost-effective alternative to using fossil-fuel-fired power plants to support grid stability through demand response.

EnerNoc helps commercial, institutional and industrial organizations use energy more intelligently, pay less for it. EnerNoc’s technology-enabled energy management solutions help meet the needs of utilities/grid operators that deliver energy and are responsible for maintaining the real-time balance between supply and demand.

EnerNoc’s enterprise carbon management application and service supports the measurement, tracking, and management of greenhouse gases across the enterprise. CarbonSMART provides seamless data connectivity that drives quality decisions on carbon risk and mitigation.

Demand response helps to reduce Co2 emission from power plants.  EnerNoc will purchase carbon credits to offset any emissions produced by Webair during a demand response dispatch, making this initiative entirely carbon-neutral.

Webair will derive additional insights about its electricity usage through complimentary smart metering equipment and EnerNoc’s web-based DemandSMART™ demand response application. Real-time energy monitoring as well as long-term usage tracking will contribute to more efficient overall operations.

Webair’s participation in demand response will contribute a more stable, sustainable and secure grid.

http://www.webair.com/

http://www.enernoc.com/

 

Related Terms in the Glossary:

Carbon Footprint

Carbon Credits

Fossil Fuels

Greenhouse Gas



Carbon emission reduction efforts by countries around the world

Posted by on Friday, 11 March, 2011

Thirty-two countries and 10 US states have emissions trading scheme.

California, one of the largest economies in the world, is due to start emissions trading next year.

Other countries, including China, Taiwan, Chile and South Korea, and a number of Canadian provinces, are either considering developing their own or already have trial emissions trading schemes in place. China has just announced its plans. CCS Projects in China

Carbon taxes are in place in Britain, Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, the Netherlands and Canada and under discussion elsewhere, including in the EU, Japan and South Africa.

Britain is going whole hog with several schemes for green products and incentives for them. EU – emission trading scheme (ETS) is popular as can be expected in Europe. EU Emission Trading Scheme

China has a tax on coal, oil and gas extraction in its largest gas-producing province and plans to extend this to all other western provinces.

India has nationwide tax of Rs 50 per tonne levied on both imported coal and coal produced domestically. The tax is insignificant and has not impacted the carbon economy. But the fact is they have also acted.

South Africa has released a discussion paper for public comment on a broad carbon tax. CCS in South Africa

Australia’s per capita emissions are high. The fact is that Australia has the highest per capita emissions of all developed countries, about 27 tonnes per person. This compares to a world average of about 6 tonnes per person, and an average of about 14 tonnes per person in other developed countries. Co2 emissions and CCS in Australia

A country’s total level of carbon pollution is important. And also important is the per capita emission.  About 20 countries responsible for about 80 per cent of the world’s emissions. The 80/20 rule works here too.

It is wrong to say that there is no action happening globally or that Copenhagen did not make important progress.

In Copenhagen all the big emitters pledged to reduce their carbon pollution. These pledges were formally incorporated into the United Nations process at the most recent negotiations, in Cancun last December.

Many countries, regions and states around the world are taking real action on climate change now.

Poland’s energy plan attempts to reduce its dependence on coal. The government has pledged to be a leader in carbon capture and storage technology. Carbon dioxide emission and carbon capture and storage in Poland

South Korea is the 9th largest Co2 emitter in the world. South Korea will start carbon emission trading scheme in January 2015. Carbon dioxide emission and carbon capture and storage in South Korea

There is this Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative in the US. . The RGGI scheme caps carbon pollution for the electricity sector in the 10 participating north-eastern states. The combined population for these 10 states is 50 million – more than double Australia’s total population. A very meagre percentage of India or china.

Each of these US State auctions pollution permits to power stations, and commits to use at least 25 per cent of their auction revenue for clean energy programs, and to assist consumers to reduce their use of electricity. Co2 emission & Carbon capture and storage in United States

In practice all participating states are far exceeding this commitment, investing 80 per cent of their proceeds – totaling $775 million so far – in renewable and energy efficiency programs.

Carbon Capture and Storage to commence in India with NTPC

 

Related Terms in the Glossary:

Carbon Emission Reduction Target

Emissions Trading

EU Emission Trading Scheme

Carbon Tax

 


Carbon Dioxide Fertilisation

Posted by on Friday, 11 March, 2011

The issue of carbon dioxide fertilization applies most immediately and understandably to managing forests and woodlands to reduce fire risk. In addition, carbon dioxide fertilization may have an effect on plant competition that contributes to shifts in species distribution, including post-fire recovery. This factor complicates projections about how southwestern forest and woodlands will be affected by global warming. Experiments testing the effects of carbon dioxide fertilization indicate rising atmospheric levels will result in an increase in herbaceous production (Nowak et al. 2004). This increase will translate into more fine fuels that can carry fire in forests and woodlands. Meanwhile, the improved growth of trees exposed to carbon dioxide fertilization indicates that rising levels of this greenhouse gas may exacerbate the tendency toward increasingly dense forests. Plants in lower light levels (i.e., understory plants) survive better in conditions of elevated carbon dioxide. The reintroduction of a surface fire regime can help counteract this tendency toward increased density.

Forest protection and reforestation are widely acknowledged means for sequestering carbon from the atmosphere and storing it in plants, at least until a stand-replacing fire occurs. Not only does a stand-replacing fire release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere as it burns plants and wood, it arguably may cause a reduction in the disturbed stand’s ability to sequester carbon until a full tree canopy is reestablished. Carbon dioxide fertilization may improve seedling survival rates after a large-scale disturbance, but this has not been tested in the field.

Reducing the risk of large-scale crown fires by treatments such as thinning understory trees could be seen as a means of keeping carbon sequestered in forests. Forestry practices such as thinning treatments, intermediate, shelterwood and seed-tree harvest cuts, as opposed to clear-cuts, also leave many mature trees standing. Carbon dioxide continues to be taken up by the remaining trees, which can grow better with the reduction of competition for limited resources. Meanwhile, carbon is also sequestered in the harvested lumber for decades or more. When small-diameter wood is used as biomass for heat or energy production, it displaces the need for using fossil fuels for this purpose.

Land managers may want to incorporate some of the information on carbon dioxide fertilization effects, including the value of intact forests for carbon sequestration, into their educational materials about the need to treat stands to reduce fire risk. They may also be interested in the scientific literature that contains many reports of carbon dioxide fertilization experiments involving different wildland species.

Carbon Fertilization


Low Carbon Cement from Fly Ash

Posted by on Friday, 11 March, 2011

CERATECH Inc (CTI) claims to manufacture cement that utilizes 95% waste fly ash from electric utilities, dramatically reducing their landfill requirements while generating zero carbon dioxide emissions from the cement production process. Cement industry is considered to be one of the largest emitter of carbon dioxide.

CTI’s technology uses fly ash which is the by-product of coal combustion, dramatically reducing the volume of ash that is being land filled. About three of every five tons of ash produced—approximately 42 million tons a year—end up in a landfill. A ton of CTI “green cement” diverts approximately 1,800 pounds of landfill waste. An additional benefit of CTI’s unique technology is that its cement production process generates no carbon dioxide emissions adding to its attractiveness.

CTI’s cement is a replacement for portland cement, with outstanding strength and durability characteristics. With no other cement on the market composed of more than 90 percent fly ash, CTI’s green cement technology sets a new standard in meeting green construction guidelines, particularly the U.S. Green Building Council’s LEED certification requirements.

The single most advantage of CTI’s technology is the low carbon emissions and use of landfill waste to produce cement. At a time when cement industry is trying to reduce its carbon emissions, CTI’s green cement technology will go places. The Calera process that uses carbon dioxide to manufacture cement can complement CTI’s technology leading to reduction in carbon emissions from cement industry.

Alpha Natural Resources has made a strategic investment in CTI which gives it 10.3 percent of the equity in CTI on a fully-diluted basis with an option to increase that stake to 28.3 percent of the fully-diluted shares if certain criteria are met. The amount of Alpha’s initial investment was not disclosed. “Alpha’s investment is an ideal fit within our larger sustainability investments strategy,” said Michael Peelish, chief sustainability officer for Alpha Natural Resources. “We’re looking for ways to encourage development of new technologies that will bring sustainable environmental benefits to our utility customers. Conversion of waste fly ash into a green construction material represents an exceptional environmental use of coal combustion by-products.”

According to Jon Hyman, CTI CEO, “Alpha’s investment brings immediate benefit to CTI. Their strategic support—especially given Alpha’s excellent reputation in the industry—is an endorsement that we know will have great value in our discussions with leading U.S. utilities. Expediting the development of partnering agreements with leading utilities will result in our ability to expand our cement production and distribution capabilities. Also it will strengthen our ability to compete cost effectively against traditional cement companies.”