Archive for category CO2 Capture

Large Scale Carbon Capture Farming to Rebuild Soils

Posted by on Monday, 1 March, 2010

USGS, California and UC Davis begin large-scale Delta “carbon farm” Project will study best ways to capture atmospheric CO2, reverse island subsidence

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) and the University of California, Davis plan to make it happen.

DWR has awarded USGS and UC Davis a three-year, $12.3 million research grant to take the concept of carbon-capture farming to full-scale in a scientifically and environmentally sound way.

Long-standing farming practices in the Delta expose fragile peat soils to wind, rain and cultivation, emit carbon dioxide (CO2) and cause land subsidence. To capture or contain the carbon, farmers would “grow” wetlands. In doing so, they would begin to rebuild the Delta’s unique peat soils, take CO2 out of the atmosphere, ease pressure on the Delta’s aging levees and infuse the region with new economic potential.

Carbon-capture farming works as CO2 is taken out of the air by plants such as tules and cattails. As the plants die and decompose, they create new peat soil, building the land surface over time.

Construction on the new wetlands, covering up to 400 acres on Twitchell Island, is scheduled to start in the spring of 2009.

Throughout the Delta, oxidation of the soils from farming practices has resulted in land-surface subsidence – a steady loss of elevation. As a result, most of the farmed Delta islands are more than 20 feet below the surrounding waterways and are permanently protected by levees.

The falling land surface threatens the stability of the region’s levees, which in turn protect the Delta’s rich agricultural lands and the conveyance of much of California’s water supplies. Water flowing through the Delta’s levee-protected farmland provides fresh water to more than 25 million Californians and millions of acres of farmland in the Central Valley.


Plastic Membranes for CO2 Separation and Capture

Posted by on Monday, 1 March, 2010

A polypropylene membrane carbon dioxide separation system has been developed by the University of Melbourne, Australia, which could be used in power plants, according to an article published in Australian business / environmental magazine ECOS.

Teflon membranes have already been used in pilot carbon capture systems, but polypropylene is much cheaper.Polypropylene was previously rejected as a potential membrane material because it could be wet by the aqueous solvents used to absorb carbon dioxide from gas.

Canada’s Regina University, the University of Trondheim, Twente University in the Netherlands, and the University of Texas are collaborating on the project.A pilot project will be built next year to process 25 tonnes of carbon dioxide a day.


CarbonSaver Technology from Atlantic Hydrogen Tests Carbon Removal

Posted by on Monday, 1 March, 2010

CarbonSaver technology involves subjecting natural gas to an electrical charge, causing the carbon and the hydrogen molecules to split. The hydrogen is then mixed back with natural gas to produce HENG with around 20% hydrogen, reducing CO2 emissions when it is burned, while the carbon is removed as a solid.

The CarbonSaver Demonstration Project, which will be located in Fredericton, New Brunswick, is expected to take three years to complete, starting in the summer of 2008. It will involve building a plant capable of generating HENG at volumes greater than 1,000 cubic metres per hour and at pressures between 50 and 150 psi.


CO2 Capture Using Biomimetic Route, Enzymatic Catalysts

Posted by on Monday, 1 March, 2010

CO2 Capture from Coal-Fired Utility Generation Plant Exhausts, and
Sequestration by a Biomimetic Route Based on Enzymatic Catalysis –
Current Status

Full paper available here

German Cos RWE, BASF, Linde Developing New CO2 Capture Process

Posted by on Monday, 1 March, 2010

Three German powerhouses announced a deal to jointly develop new processes for carbon dioxide capture in coal-fired power plants.

Essen-based RWE Power, Ludwigshafen’s BASF, and the Linde Group in Munich are aiming to remove 90 percent of CO2 from combustion gas in power plants.

The companies expect to have a commercial application by 2020.

The group plans to construct and operate a pilot facility at the lignite-fired power plant of RWE Power in Niederaussem to test new developments and solvents from BASF for the capture of CO2, also known as CO2 scrubbing.

Linde, the world’s largest producer of industrial and medical gases, will be responsible for the engineering and construction of the pilot plant.

Once pilot tests are complete, a subsequent demonstration plant is expected to be built in 2010.

RWE Power said it has budgeted $113.5 million for the development project, including the construction and operation of the pilot facility and demonstration plant.

Siemens CO2 Capture Technology for Combined Cycle Power Plants

Posted by on Monday, 1 March, 2010

Siemens Energy is to adapt its proprietary process for carbon dioxide capture to the special conditions prevalent in and mode of operation of combined-cycle power plants for the Norwegian utility Statkraft.

The project kicked off in January 2009 and is scheduled to be completed within two years. This technology will then be available for industrial-scale applications.

Siemens is already working on a proprietary process for CO2 capture from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants. “Cooperation with Statkraft will allow us to now further develop this future-oriented technology to also permit its use in gas-fired combined cycle power plants “, Suess added.

Combined cycle power plants are in great demand throughout the world due to their high efficiency and low environmental impact. They do, however, impose stringent requirements on the process used for CO2 capture. Their flue gas has a lower CO2 concentration than that in coal-fired plants while simultaneously exhibiting a high oxygen content, conditions which have a very negative impact on known solvents.

Source: Siemens

CO2-Capturing Crystals That Mimic DNA Developed by UCLA Scientists

Posted by on Monday, 1 March, 2010

UCLA scientists have created DNA-like crystals that capture carbon dioxide

UCLA graduate student Hexian Deng and biochemistry professor Omar M. Yaghi have developed synthetic crystals that can be used to trap carbon dioxide.

UCLA’s “designer crystal” approach opens the door for more low cost, scalable applications, such as trapping carbon dioxide from factories or vehicle exhaust pipes.

The new synthetic crystals can code information just as DNA does, in a more simple form based on the sequence of pores in the material. The result is a sponge-like ability to trap gasses, along with a high degree of selectivity that in turn leads to highly efficient carbon capture. According to a UCLA press release, Deng was able to achieve a 400% improvement in carbon dioxide capture by manipulating the sequence.

The UCLA breakthrough is also reminiscent of another innovation related to crystalline structure, a form of glass that can swell in a sponge-like manner and selectively trap volatile organic compounds. Swelling glass, marketed under the trademark Obsorb, was developed by Wooster College professor Paul Edmiston as a relatively quick and low cost way to clean up industrial sites.


Ceramic Spheres to Capture, Store Carbon Di-oxide Emissions

Posted by on Monday, 1 March, 2010

Scientists in Brazil say they have developed a technique for absorbing industry-produced carbon dioxide. The half-centimeter ceramic spheres were developed at the chemistry department of the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG) in Belo Horizonte in south-eastern Brazil.

The ceramic balls absorb and neutralize the CO2 before it is released.

When the CO2 interacts with the sphere material, a high-temperature reaction takes place, said researcher Jadson Belchior. “The absorption isn’t instantaneous. It occurs as a function of time and temperature. They are the two major variables we can control: a more rapid emission process at higher temperatures, or slower emission at lower temperatures,” he said.

The researchers claim the balls can absorb 40% of the CO2 that comes in contact with it, and say they hope to boost that number to 60%.

The resulting residue is carbon dioxide in its gaseous form, which can be packed in cylinders, or its molecules used to make a different molecule through chemical reactions.

Preliminary tests show that the ceramic material can be reused up to 10 times. Experiments conducted by researcher Geison Voga Pereira found that each kilogram of the special ceramic can absorb up to 500 grams of CO2.


Zero Emission Coal Power Plant Design Makes Carbon Capture Profitable

Posted by on Monday, 1 March, 2010

Power Plant Produces Hydrogen, Only Raw Materials Needed are Coal, Salt and Water

The only raw material required is coal (or natural gas), sodium chloride (salt) and water. The process locks carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) into sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate.

Florida International University (FIU, Miami, Florida) FIU Center for the Study of Matter at Extreme Conditions Director Surendra Saxena developed the system of reactions for a partial sequestration of carbon (CO2 and CO) from coal burning plants and zero emission production of hydrogen and hydrides. The only raw material to be used is salt (sodium chloride, NaCl), coal and water or a metal for the hydride. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) generated from the chloride is used for locking carbon dioxide in sodium carbonate and bicarbonate, according to Saxena in U.S. Patent Application 20100028241

Saxena process also generates hydrogen from the reaction. The reaction takes place in a closed system to achieve zero emission of carbon gases while generating hydrogen from the reaction. The process of carbonation is not a direct conversion of NaOH to Na2CO3 but is a result of a reaction with other solids and gases usually producing hydrogen in important amounts.


Carbon Capture Boom: 100 CO2 Capture Projects, $56 Billion in a Decade

Posted by on Monday, 1 March, 2010

No fewer than 100 large-scale carbon capture and storage projects within about a decade, at a cost of some $56 billion — that’s what International Energy Agency chief Nobuo Tanaka said the world needs in order to help address climate change, according to Reuters.

At the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum, a conference of energy ministers taking place this week in London, Tanaka called for 850 CCS projects by 2030 and 3,400 by 2050, with a total investment of more than $700 billion over the next three decades. Those are huge numbers for an experimental technology that has yet to be proven at industrial scale.

The next decade represents a “key ‘make or break’ period” for carbon capture and storage technology, according to a 52-page CCS “Technology Roadmap” out today from the International Energy Agency, and it could open significant opportunities for startups. While large established power companies will likely dominate industrial storage projects, startups with novel chemical conversion technologies like GreatPoint Energy, and startups that recycle the carbon, like algae fuel firms like Solazyme, will likely benefit from the intergovernmental agency’s call to arms.